Language revitalization through a social movement lens: grassroots Galician language activism

Abstract

In this article, a social movement lens is applied to examine the dynamics of an urbanbased language revitalization movement in the Autonomous Community of Galicia (North-western Spain). The potential of Resource Management Theory is explored as a way of systematically analysing the dynamics of urban-based language revitalization movements. It does this by identifying factors which both helped fuel the emergence and growth of this Galician grassroots movement as well as those constraining its potential development. Drawing on in-depth interviews and observations collected over six months of ethnographic fieldwork in one of Galicia’s main cities, social movement theory is used to analyse the role of Galician social movement activists as social agents in shaping the success of their language revitalization initiative. We argue that a social movement lens provides a useful analytical toolkit to focus on the grassroots efforts of social agents involved in peripheral ethnolinguistic mobilization in minority language contexts such as Galicia. Ultimately, we aim to show that these social movement revitalization initiatives go beyond language as an object and are centred around language-based struggles which not only address strategy dilemmas but also scaffold social relations and ties among speakers as they mobilize within particular institutional fields.

Culturally competent respect for the autonomy of Muslim patients: fostering patient agency by respecting justice

Abstract

Although Western biomedical ethics emphasizes respect for autonomy, the medical decision-making of Muslim patients interacting with Western healthcare systems is more likely to be motivated by relational ethical and religious commitments that reflect the ideals of equity, reciprocity, and justice. Based on an in-depth cross-cultural comparison of Islamic and Western systems of biomedical ethics and an assessment of conceptual alignments and differences, we argue that, when working with Muslim patients, an ethics of respect extends to facilitating decision-making grounded in the patient’s justice-related customs, beliefs, and obligations. We offer an overview of the philosophical contestations of autonomy-enhancing practices from the Islamic tradition of biomedical ethics, and examples that demonstrate a recommended shift of emphasis from an autonomy-centered to a justice-focused approach to culturally competent agency-promotion.

Culturally competent respect for the autonomy of Muslim patients: fostering patient agency by respecting justice

Abstract

Although Western biomedical ethics emphasizes respect for autonomy, the medical decision-making of Muslim patients interacting with Western healthcare systems is more likely to be motivated by relational ethical and religious commitments that reflect the ideals of equity, reciprocity, and justice. Based on an in-depth cross-cultural comparison of Islamic and Western systems of biomedical ethics and an assessment of conceptual alignments and differences, we argue that, when working with Muslim patients, an ethics of respect extends to facilitating decision-making grounded in the patient’s justice-related customs, beliefs, and obligations. We offer an overview of the philosophical contestations of autonomy-enhancing practices from the Islamic tradition of biomedical ethics, and examples that demonstrate a recommended shift of emphasis from an autonomy-centered to a justice-focused approach to culturally competent agency-promotion.

From pilots to policies: Challenges for implementing intercultural bilingual education in Latin America

Abstract

For the past four decades, intercultural bilingual education (IBE) has been a common policy prescription to address Indigenous/non-Indigenous education gaps in Latin America. Initiatives have grown from small, localised pilots to national and state-level initiatives across thousands of schools. While there is some rigorous evidence of the effectiveness of IBE pilot initiatives at a small scale, there is very little evidence that expanding them to a larger scale benefits learners to the same extent. This article reviews the existing evidence on IBE’s effectiveness and identifies a number of challenges in replicating success at scale. The authors identify factors which have limited our understanding of IBE’s effectiveness, as well as factors which may have contributed to less-than-ideal outcomes for larger programmes, including uneven coverage, varying teacher quality, and limited resource availability for smaller Indigenous languages. Addressing these issues will be crucial for improving IBE programmes’ ability to operate successfully at scale.

A systematic review on the qualitative experiences of people living with lung cancer in rural areas

Abstract

Purpose

To synthesize the qualitative literature exploring the experiences of people living with lung cancer in rural areas.

Methods

Searches were performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. Articles were screened independently by two reviewers against pre-determined eligibility criteria. Data were synthesized using Thomas and Harden’s framework for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research. The CASP qualitative checklist was used for quality assessment and the review was reported in accordance with the ENTREQ and PRISMA checklists.

Results

Nine articles were included, from which five themes were identified: (1) diagnosis and treatment pathways, (2) travel and financial burden, (3) communication and information, (4) experiences of interacting with healthcare professionals, (5) symptoms and health-seeking behaviors. Lung cancer diagnosis was unexpected for some with several reporting treatment delays and long wait times regarding diagnosis and treatment. Accessing treatment was perceived as challenging and time-consuming due to distance and financial stress. Inadequate communication of information from healthcare professionals was a common concern expressed by rural people living with lung cancer who also conveyed dissatisfaction with their healthcare professionals. Some were reluctant to seek help due to geographical distance and sociocultural factors whilst others found it challenging to identify symptoms due to comorbidities.

Conclusions

This review provides a deeper understanding of the challenges faced by people with lung cancer in rural settings, through which future researchers can begin to develop tailored support to address the existing disparities that affect this population.

Abortion care at 20 weeks and over in Victoria: a thematic analysis of healthcare providers’ experiences

Abstract

Background

In many countries, abortions at 20 weeks and over for indications other than fetal or maternal medicine are difficult to access due to legal restrictions and limited availability of services. The Abortion and Contraception Service at the Royal Women’s Hospital in Victoria, Australia is the only service in the state that provides this service. The views and experiences of these abortion providers can give insight into the experiences of staff and women and the abortion system accessibility. The aim of this study was to examine health providers’ perceptions and experiences of providing abortion care at 20 weeks and over for indications other than fetal or maternal medicine, as well as enablers and barriers to this care and how quality of care could be improved in one hospital in Victoria, Australia.

Methods

A qualitative study was conducted at the Abortion and Contraception Service at the Royal Women’s Hospital. Participants were recruited by convenience and purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted one-on-one with participants either online or in-person. A reflexive thematic analysis was performed.

Results

In total, 17 healthcare providers from medicine, nursing, midwifery, social work and Aboriginal clinical health backgrounds participated in the study. Ultimately, three themes were identified: ‘Being committed to quality care: taking a holistic approach’, ‘Surmounting challenges: being an abortion provider is difficult’, and ‘Meeting external roadblocks: deficiencies in the wider healthcare system’. Participants felt well-supported by their team to provide person-centred and holistic care, while facing the emotional and ethical challenges of their role. The limited abortion workforce capacity in the wider healthcare system was perceived to compromise equitable access to care.

Conclusions

Providers of abortion at 20 weeks and over for non-medicalised indications encounter systemic enablers and barriers to delivering care at personal, service delivery and healthcare levels. There is an urgent need for supportive policies and frameworks to strengthen and support the abortion provider workforce and expand provision of affordable, acceptable and accessible abortions at 20 weeks and over in Victoria and in Australia more broadly.