Advances in materials informatics: a review

Abstract

Materials informatics (MI) is aimed to accelerate the materials discovery using computational intelligence and data science. Progress of MI depends on the strength of database and artificial intelligence protocols comprising machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) frameworks. Conventional ML models are simple and interpretable, relying on statistical techniques and algorithms to learn patterns and make predictions with limited data. Conversely, DL, an advancement of ML, employs mathematical neural networks to automatically extract features and handle intricate data at the cost of data size and computational complexity. This work aims to provide a state-of-the-art understanding of the tools, data sources and techniques used in MI and their benefits and challenges. We evaluate the growth of MI through its subfields and track the main path of its advancement for artificial intelligence-driven materials discovery. The advancements in computational intelligence via machine learning and deep learning algorithms in different fields of materials science are discussed. As a specific example, understanding of materials properties using microstructural images is reviewed. Future demands and research prospects in materials science utilizing materials informatics have also been comprehensively analyzed.

Assessment and modelling of hydro-sedimentological flows of the eastern river Dhauliganga, north-western Himalaya, India

Abstract

Assessment and modelling of hydro-sedimentological flows of a high-altitude river system is a critical step for developing and managing sustainable water resource projects and best management practices (BMPs) in the downslope regions of the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR). A field study was carried out to measure the hydraulic parameters such as water pressure, water flow rate, and stage of the 6th order glacier-fed river to quantify hydro-sedimentological flows using area-velocity and vacuum filtration method for 3 successive years during 2018–2020. Further, a process-based hydrological model: Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), is used to simulate the hydro-sedimentological flows. The statistical indices such as coefficient of determination (R2), Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and percentage bias (PBIAS) attain higher values during both calibration and validation periods. The snowmelt and rainfall contributions to the total streamflow range from 17–35 % and 27–34 %, respectively. The measured and modelled hydro-sedimentological flows show high variability with a high coefficient of variation (COV > 1). However, the mean suspended sediment load (SSL) carried by the river was low compared to the other glacier-fed rivers. The physical weathering rate (PWR) dominates the chemical weathering rate (CWR) for the study years. This might be due to higher crushing of the region and weathering of base rock materials. The PWR and CWR of the basin are less than that of the western Himalayan regions. This study also underscores the necessity of basin management plans in the Himalaya, emphasizing erosion identification, snowmelt and glacier melt in streamflow, and customized groundwater recharge strategies through GIS mapping, providing essential insights for sustainable land and water resource management in changing climatic conditions.

Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of Ti-15-3 alloy joint fabricated by submerged friction stir welding

Abstract

In this work, the Ti-15-3 alloy joints were successfully prepared via submerged friction stir welding (SFSW) for the first time. The microstructure evolutions and mechanical properties of the SFSW joints were characterized by electron backscattering diffraction, finite element simulation, microhardness, and tensile tests. The results revealed that the joint included three distinct zones, named as stirring zone (SZ), thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), and base metal (BM), respectively. During SFSW, the peak temperature (~ 808 °C) and strain in SZ gradually decreased from the upper surface to the bottom surface along the thickness of the as-received plate. Meanwhile, the temperature and strain on the advancing side (AS) were higher than that of the retreating side (RS) within SZ. Comparatively, a slightly low temperature (~ 480 °C) and strain occurred in TMAZ. Due to the high temperature and large strain during SFSW, the grains were significantly refined, and the major grain refinement mechanism of SZ was continuous dynamic recrystallization, while that of TMAZ was coupled by continuous and discontinuous dynamic recrystallization. Note that the ideal shear texture formed in SZ. The shear textures components at the top, center, and bottom of SZ center were D2( \(11\overline{2 }\) )[111], while that of AS and RS within SZ was D1( \(11\overline{2 }\) )[111]. Finally, the ultimate tensile strengths of SZ and TMAZ were 854 MPa and 816 MPa, which reached that of 103% and 96% of BM, respectively. In summary, it was an effective method to prepare a uniform and high-performance Ti-15-3 alloy joint through SFSW.

Assessment of factors leading to the failure of slopes in North Dakota

Abstract

A total of 66,894 landslides were observed in North Dakota. The characteristics of these landslide locations were compared with the properties of areas without landslides to assess the factors that may be contributing to the landslides. Specifically, 68,395 control point locations randomly distributed across the state were selected for these comparisons. All the landslides for this study were found in areas with slopes less than 64°, with the majority of the failures occurring on slopes with inclinations between 9° and 14°. The largest fraction of the landslides occurred in the Sentinel Butte Formation (34,063 or 51% of the total), followed by Bullion Creek (8695 or 13% of the total) and river sediment of the Oahe Formation (6421 or 9.6% of the total). In the t tests, all of the surficial geologic formations had statistically significant differences between the landslides and control points. The t test for the slope inclination indicated statistically significant differences with a p-value less than 0.001 and a huge effect size between the landslide and control points. The sodium adsorption ratio and total dissolved solids were also found to be statistically significant from the t test results. Pearson’s correlation matrix showed a negative correlation between the amount of rainfall and various measures of the salt concentrations at the landslide locations, pointing to the reductions in shear strength and slope stability that might result as pore fluid salinity is leached.

World Pandemic Control in International Law: Through a Transboundary Harm Perspective

Abstract

The current pandemic response system under the International Health Regulations has been considered unsatisfactory in controlling world pandemic outbreaks. Opinions are voiced that a legal evolution incorporating other sources of international law is imperative to meet the system’s primary deficiency: the uneven degree of State compliance with the ‘core capacity’ requirements. Against this background, this paper aims to examine the potential application of transboundary harm rules in world pandemic prevention, where existing treaty obligations are insufficient or ineffective in addressing future obstacles. By comparing their conceptual characters and legal elements, this paper seeks to reveal the inherent link between the two domains, which may further demonstrate an existing manifestation of transboundary harm rules as emerging customary international law in current pandemic prevention practice. Based on the structure of transboundary harm rules, this paper aims to provide an innovative legal framework that justifies the differentiated standards among States with uneven capacity and underlines the obligation of cooperation. Such a framework is designed to improve the level of States’ prevention and response towards future global health emergencies raised by world pandemics. Moreover, it hopes to provide practical ideas for formulating the new international instrument on pandemic prevention, which is currently being drafted by the Member States of the World Health Organization.