In Sweden, open access to academic communication is fairly common. The Swedish Research Council began requiring grantees to make their research results open access in 2010. The international Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association includes Lund University Libraries and Stockholm University Press.

The Swedish Research Bill 2016, which sets out the Swedish Government's direction for the next ten years of research policy, includes the goal of making scientific publications that are the result of publicly funded research immediately open access upon publication.

As of March 2021, there are 44 OA journals published in Sweden which are indexed in DOAJ. Currently, 12 OA policies are registered in ROARMAP.

Almost all universities and major university colleges have open access repositories for publications. Available full-text contents include doctoral and licentiate theses, journal articles, conference papers, reports, books and book chapters. There are 49 repositories in Sweden registered in OpenDOAR. The majority of Swedish research publication repositories are members of a consortium based on DiVA, developed and run by Uppsala University. Others, like Gothenburg University, Karolinska Institutet, Chalmers Technical University and Malmö University, have implemented open source software like DSpace or created their own institutional repositories. The repositories include meta-data from all the academic publications of the institution and have been created to meet the needs of research evaluation and visibility.

Most of the records from the HEIs’ local repositories are harvested and can be found in the Swepub search service run by the National Library of Sweden. Swepub is the national publication database, which is also developing services for national analyses and bibliometric data, e.g. statistics on open access publishing in Sweden.

Data repositories

There are four national data centres registered in the re3data database. Two of these collect climate and environmental data (Environment Climate Data, ECDS and Bolin Centre Database), one is for the Life Sciences (National Bioinformatics Infrastructure Sweden (NBIS)), and one, the Swedish National Data Service (SND), is a service organisation for researchers within the Humanities, Social Sciences and Health Sciences. SND, hosted by Gothenburg University, is a national resource that facilitates access to new and existing research data from researchers in Sweden and internationally . SND also provides support to researchers in Sweden throughout the process of data management. Some of the HEIs like the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lund University and Stockholm University, have already adopted or are planning to adopt a local strategy for managing and storing research data. Also, some HEIs are already using their local database or DiVA for storing small datasets.

Another national infrastructure for research data is SNIC, the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing. SNIC provides resources and user support for large scale computation and data storage to meet the needs of researchers from all scientific disciplines and from all over Sweden. Also, SUNET, the Swedish University Computer Network, provides Swedish HEIs with access to national and international data communication, national academic identity infrastructure and related services. For instance, SUNET has signed a consortium agreement with ORCID Inc, so that all libraries and research organisations in Sweden have access to ORCID’s technical system.

National publishing initiatives

27 OA journals by Swedish publishers

National agreements with publishers

The Bibsam Consortium drives the transition to open access by combining open access and licensing in negotiations with international publishers of scientific research. The goal is to redirect the payment flows from a subscription based to an open access publishing system, to reach transparency and to monitor the total costs of scholarly publications, and to facilitate open access to scholarly publications. There are currently twenty one agreements where an open access parameter is included as e.g. discount, offsetting or “big deal”. Also, an open access clause is included in all multi-year e-journal agreements with all publishers. E.g. This clause implies that publishers shall inform the Consortium of any alternative business models, including but not limited to models taking into account both subscription journals and Author Processing Charges for open access publishing in hybrid journals.

OA books

Kriterium is a portal for review, publication and dissemination of high-quality academic books, in accordance with the principles for open access. Kriterium is a new quality label for Swedish academic books. To receive the Kriterium stampof approval, all publications will undergo stringent peer review according to set guidelines. All books with the Kriterium label will be freely available through open access, in print as well as online

Enabling Environment

Swedish Association of Higher Education (SUHF) signed the Berlin Declaration in 2004 and urged its 42 members to adopt OA policies. It Blekinge Institute of Technology (2007), Chalmers University of Technology (2010) and Malmö University (2010) have mandatory OA policies. Universities of Lund and Stockholm have strong OA recommendation statements. coordinates a variety of OA initiatives. Various European initiatives e.g.UKCORR (UK Council of Research Repositories) and OpenAIRE network provide support.

In the Swedish Research Council’s report Proposal for National Guidelines for Open Access to Scientific Information (2015), a number of challenges to a transition to an open access publishing system were identified. On the basis of this report, the National Library of Sweden initiates and coordinates the following studies concerning:

  • The current merit and resource allocation system versus incentives for open access
  • Funding for a transition from a subscription-based to an open access publishing system
  • Open access to scholarly monographs
  • Financial and technical support for converting peer-reviewed and scholarly journals from toll access to open access
  • Monitoring of compliance with open access policies and mandates

Representatives from all main stakeholders with a key role in the national transition to an open access publishing system will participate in one working groupfor each study. This includes HEI’s, research funders and researchers. The studies will result in further recommendations to the Government on how to nationally solve the identified obstacles.

National and Institutional Level Policies/Mandates

In 2015, the Swedish Research Council developed a proposal for national guidelines for open access to scientific information, including publications, research data and artistic works. The proposal was produced in consultation with the National Library of Sweden and other relevant actors. It presents a proposal for how national guidelines should be formulated and includes suggestions for further assignments, investigations and allocation of responsibilities, together with a proposal that a national coordination function be set upat the appropriate authority, with the mandate to coordinate the work.

In 2017, the National Library of Sweden received the Government's assignment to nationally coordinate the implementation of open access to publications and to do this in consultation with the Swedish Research Council. The NLS has initiated five studies with the aim to produce recommendations on how to solve different obstacles to the realisation of open access to publications. During 2017-2019 five working groups with representation from HEIs, research funders, the research community and the NLS are studying the following five topics.

The current merit and resource allocation system versus incentives for open access;

Funding for a transition from a subscription-based to an open access publishing system;

Open access to scholarly monographs;

Financial and technical support for converting peer-reviewed and scholarly journals from toll access to open access;

Monitoring of compliance with open access policies and mandates.

In 2017 the Swedish Research Council received the Swedish government’s assignment to nationally coordinate the implementation of open access to research data. The assignment shall be accomplished in consultation with the National Library of Sweden and the National Archive of Sweden. The Swedish Research Council intends to be a driving actor for policies regarding open access to research data, in particular with regards to developing guidelines and generating incentives for researchers to make their research data open access.

As a part of the work with the assignment the Swedish Research Council will:

  • Contribute to and facilitate constructive discussions on research data management and research data access
  • Be policy driving in questions regarding open access to research data, e.g. concerning the production of guidelines and creating incentives
  • Work both nationally and internationally (e.g. lessons learned and cooperations)
  • Work in close cooperation with research

In December 2017 the Swedish Government assigned the National Library of Sweden to developindicators to assess the extent to which scientific publications, which have been fully or partially produced by public funding, meet the national objective of open access being fully implemented in 2026. The indicators should enable an assessment of whether scientific publications are immediately available on publication. In parallel the Government instructs the Swedish Research Council to developcriteria to assess the extent to which research data, which has been fully or partly produced by public funding, complies with the FAIR principles. Based on the assessment indicators presented, the National Library shall also propose a method that shows a comprehensive picture of scientific publications and research data together at both national level and for publicly funded research institutions, respectively. The assignment shall be reported to the Government Offices no later than 28 February 2019.

Since 2018, the government has requested that the National Library of Sweden to compile the total expenditure for scientific publishing. The National Library of Sweden will pay particular attention to costs for subscriptions, APCs and administrative expenses.

Funder policy

There are four national agencies distributing research funding in Sweden and advising the government on research-related issues. Three of them, the Swedish Research Council (VR), Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (Formas) and Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (Forte) have mandates for open access to publications. The fourth, the Swedish Innovation Agency (Vinnova), has no open access mandate.

VR is the largest Swedish funding agency for basic research in Natural Sciences, Technology, Medicine, Humanities and Social Sciences at Swedish HEIs. VR signed the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities in 2005 and adopted an OA mandate in 2010. Researchers receiving grants from VR must either publish their journal articles in electronic journals in open access (the mandate does not apply to monographs and book chapters). Alternatively, they have to archive the article in an open institutional or disciplinary repository immediately after, or within at most 6 (Natural Sciences, technology and Medicine) or 12 (Educational Sciences or Humanities and Social Sciences) months, of its publication in a traditional journal. Since 2015 only OA publications can be reported in the project reporting form for VR funded research. Starting in 2017, researchers who pay for APCs (Article Processing Charges) with funding from VR are required to publish their outputs with a CC BY licence. Formas adopted an OA mandate in 2010, and in 2011 Forte did likewise. These mandates align to a large extent with the VR mandate. Other councils have not yet adopted any OA mandates.Formas recommends the projects being funded by Formas to make the research data and meta-data openly available, as long as it does not conflict with the national Data Protection Act.A number of public and private actors funding research and development have OA mandates. The Swedish Foundation for Humanities and Social Sciences - Riksbankens Jubileumsfond (RJ) – in 2010 adopted an OA mandate, demanding to make research publications open access within 12 months of publication. The Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation have been including an open access mandate in their grant policies since 2010. This private foundation is an important funder for research, research networks and equipment in the Technical, Natural Sciences and Biomedical fields. In 2011, the Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies also adopted an OA mandate.

Institutional Policy

All major universities have policies or strategies with recommendations to publish their research results in open access. Almost all other HEIs also have similar recommendations for open access. Four HEIs have Open Access mandates; these include Blekinge Institute of Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Malmö University and Umeå University.

Key Organizations

Association of Higher Education (SUHF)

SUHF is a membershiporganisation established for institutional co-operation on a voluntary basis. All 42 universities and university colleges with research output have institutional depositaries.

SUHF aims to safeguarding the interest of the institutions and strengthening their international interests. The association addresses strategic issues as well as concrete ones through discussions and decisions. The association has direct contact to the Parliament, the Government and governmental commissions. SUHF has a strategic collaboration with the National Library, established in the Forum för Bibliotekschefer vid Svenska Universitet och Högskolor who inform them on issues e.g. access to publication archives. OA publishing is addressed through subcommittees. SUHF is a member of the OA Steering Committee.

Contact: Sveriges universitets- och högskoleförbund, Tryckerigatan 8, S-111 28 Stockholm; Tel: +46 (0)8 321388 | Fax: +46 (0)8 329370;

Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsrådet)

The Swedish Research Council is part of Ministry of Education and Research and the largest Swedish funding agency for basic research at Swedish universities, colleges and institutes with an annual budget is around SEK 4 billion annually for first-class basic research in Sweden.

The SRC advises the government on research-policy and identifies strategic research areas and works to communicate research findings to  the public. It works through three sscientific Councils: Humanities and Social Sciences; Medicine; Natural and Engineering Sciences.

The Research Council is responsible for broadening discussion about OA and putting the subject on the agenda and as early as 2005 signed the Berlin Declaration SINCE 2010 has included an OA publication requirement from all funded researchers. This was followed by the announcement from the Swedish Research Council Formas – which funds research on sustainable development – of an OA mandate for its research. 

Contact: Swedish Research Council, Box 1035, SE-101 38 Stockholm, Sweden. e-mail: vr(at); Tel: +46 8 546 44 000; Fax: +46 8 546 44 180.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Science (Kungl. Vetenskapsakademien)

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences is an independent organisation with the aim of promoting the sciences through inter-subject research and influence research policy priorities. It works through 6 research institutes and awards the prestigious  Nobel Prizes in Physics and Chemistry, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, the Crafoord Prize. The Academy has signed the Berlin Declaration.

Contact: The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Box 50005, SE-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden; Visiting/Delivery address: Lilla Frescativägen 4A, SE-114 18 Stockholm. e-mail: +46 8 673 95 00; Fax: +46 8 15 56 70.

National Library of Sweden

The National Library of Sweden is both a national library and national research library authority. It contains all material printed in Sweden or in Swedish since 1661 and is available to the public. Since 2010, it also houses the Department of Audiovisual Material (previously the Swedish National Archive of Recorded Sound and Moving Images) collects TV and radio programs, films and videos distributed in Sweden, Swedish music and multimedia recordings.

The National Library is also a humanities research library that purchases scholarly literature in several languages. We coordinate services and programs for all research libraries in Sweden and administer and developLIBRIS, the national library catalog system.

It has supported the development of repositories and promoted Open Access for a number of years. It coordinates and funds the programme, run partnershipwith Association of Swedish Higher Education, the Swedish Research Council, the Royal Swedish Academy of the Sciences, the Swedish Knowledge Foundation and Riksbankens Jubileumsfond and develops OA policy, infrastructure/user services and information to researchers. The programme has so far funded about 30 projects that have focussed on the growth of the volume and diversity of material in OA repositories; access to and use of content in OA repositories and OA journals; publishing in OA journals and the migration of Swedish scientific journals to an OA model.

The NLS also acts as the coordinating agency for the Swedish e-licensing consortium. In this role it actively promotes a development where licensing deals support Open Access publishing of Swedish researchers.

Events and Programmes

  • 12 February 2021, In the crystal ball: report from the Swedish webinar on the future of Open Science in Europe
  • Open Access to research. / Öppen tillgång till forskningsresultat, 2018-10-26, Sweden
  • Disseminate your research with Wikipedia / Sprid din forskning med Wikipedia, 2018-10-25, Sweden
  • Open Access Week at Linnaeus University Kalmar, 2018-10-23, Sweden
  • Open Access Week at Linnaeus University Växjö, 2018-10-23, Sweden
  • The Current Status of Open Access, 2018-10-23, Sweden
  • Open Access: Questions and Answers, 2018-10-22, Sweden
  • 17 January 2018, Transitioning towards Open Access: New assignments for the National Library of Sweden
  • Open Access in, 2017-10-27, Sweden
  • Devteam sprint review, 2017-10-27, Sweden
  • This years most downloaded Open Access Publication from Chalmers University of technology, 2017-10-26, Sweden
  • Awarding the author of most downloaded article at Chalmers, 2017-10-26, Sweden
  • Welcome to Wikipedia Workshop, 2017-10-25, Sweden
  • Wikipedia - föreläsning och workshop, 2017-10-25, Sweden
  • How can you benefit from Open Access?, 2017-10-24, Sweden
  • Open Access and Data Management in the Life Sciences, Karolinska Institutet University Library, 2017-10-23, Sweden
  • 09 March 2017, Swedish OpenAIRE event "Opportunities in Open Science"
  • Open science - Why and how, 2016-10-25, Sweden
  • 25 October 2016, Dialogue, Digitization, Participation: Making Open Science a Reality in Sweden
  • Open Access Week at Linnaeus University, 2016-10-24, Sweden
  • Open Access Week at Luleå University of Technology, 2016-10-24, Sweden
  • Open Access Week at Linnaeus University, 2016-10-24, Sweden
  • Open Access Week at Malmö University in Sweden, 2015-10-19, Sweden
  • Open access week, 2015-10-19, Sweden
  • Open Access Week at Chalmers University of Technology, 2015-10-19, Sweden
  • Edit-a-thon and seminars, 2015-10-19, Sweden
  • Research funders demanding Open Access, 2011-10-28, Sweden
  • Drawbacks? Common reservations concerning Open Access, 2011-10-27, Sweden
  • "Gold Open Access" - publishing with Open Access publishers, 2011-10-27, Sweden
  • Parallel publishing: researchers' motivations and experiences, 2011-10-26, Sweden
  • Scholarly/Scientific Impact Metrics in the Open Access Era, 2010-11-16, Sweden 


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