Open Access initiatives have been taken in Portugal since 2004 with the establishment of an OA self-archiving repository at University of Minho, followed by the 1st Open Access conference in 2005.  In 2005 the Scientific Electronic Library Online ( SciELO ), a cooperative electronic scientific journal collection library was established between Latin America, Spain and Portugal.

In Portugal, the development of a solid and mature repository infrastructure, providing a range of relevant services and supporting an active OA community, around the Scientific Open Access Repository of Portugal - RCAAP - offered a solid basis to the definition and implementation of Open Access policies within research performing institutions and research funders. The majority of Portuguese Higher Education Institutions have an institutional repository as the main access point to their scientific output, and most of them also have defined Open Access policies requiring deposit into their institutional repositories.

In 2016 the portuguese Government and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education (MCTES) have defined Open Science as a priority. The Council of Ministers approved a resolution with the guidelines for the National Open Science Policy and mandated the MCTES to create an Interministerial Working Group (WG-NOSP). That WG produced an initial report with a diagnosis and characterisation of various dimensions and components of Open Science in Portugal,  that was followed by a second report containing a set of comprehensive recommendations (encompassing open access and open data, infrastructures and preservation, research evaluation and social responsibility of science). In 2019, MCTES has commissioned the Open Science agenda to the Portuguese national funder, Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT). FCT intends to develop a national research data roadmap.

Currently, there are strong and effective policies in Portugal, like the mandates from Instituto Politécnico de Bragança (IPB) and University of Minho, which link repository deposition with the institutional processes of reporting and evaluation. Over the last few years, and taking advantage of the participation in EC’s funded projects, OpenAIRE, MedOANet and PASTEUR4OA projects, an effort has been made to homogenise the OA policies in Portugal and align them all with the EC recommendations.

Other factors which contributed for the success of the infrastructure and policy initiatives were the strong advocacy strategy implemented in the RCAAP context, the focus on promoting interoperability, the adoption of DRIVER Guidelines, the use of the validator to periodically verify the repository compliance, and a helpdesk service to help institutions when needed. Finally, the Open Access mandate of the major public funder launched in May this year reinforced the idea that there remains room for development and improvement of Open Access issues in Portugal

As of March 2021 , There are now 50 institutional and subject repositories in Portugal which are registered in OpenDOAR . 134 OA journals are indexed in DOAJ .

There are currently 27 OA policies registered in ROARMAP .

Portugal's major research funder FCT, Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia , is the first national funder using the OpenAIRE data model and services for funding information . OpenAIRE has recently released, in a pilot stage, the identification of almost 7000 publications as outputs from FCT projects.

The FCT is the major Portuguese Science Funder and released in 2014 its Open Access policy much in line with the European Commission OA recommendations. The basic requirement of this funder OA policy is the deposit as soon as possible of “all publications of research outputs, subject to peer-review or another form of scientific review” into a repository hosted within RCAAP – the Portuguese Open Access Repositories Network . The policy applies to papers in scientific journals, conference proceedings, posters, books and book chapters, monographs, Masters and PhD theses.

Enabling Environment

Portugal is a participant in Southern European Libraries Link (SELL). The Conference of Rectors of the Portuguese Universities (CRUP)   signed the Berlin Declaration in 2007 and Repositório Científico de Acesso Aberto de Portugal (RCAAP) Portugal’s open access Science Repository established in 2008 that supports the OA environment in the country.

Repositório Científico de Acesso Aberto de Portugal (RCAAP) has a mission to promote, support and facilitate the adoption of open access to scientific knowledge in Portugal. This mission is materialized on the following objectives: - Increase the visibility, accessibility and dissemination of results of academic activity and Portuguese scientific research; - Facilitate the management and access to information about the national scientific production; - Integrate Portugal a number of international initiatives.

Repositories Científico de Acesso Aberto de Portugal (RCAAP)

Provides support to repositories through the following services:  a national portal that indexes material; SARI a central infrastructure facility enabling institutional repositories to develop; a Repositories Validate, based on DRIVER guidelines that maintains standardisation. RCAAP also produces guidelines through an Open Access Policies Kit and uses social networking sites with pages on Facebook and Twitter.

University of Minho is in partnership with OpenAIRE

In a three-year project, will establish the infrastructure for researchers to support them in complying with the EC OA pilot and the ERC Guidelines on Open Access.

National and Institutional Level Policies/Mandates

No national mandate exists at present, but there is a recommendation by CRUP (Conference of Rectors of the Portuguese Universities), and it is also a signatory to Berlin Declaration.

Events and Programs

  • LE@D - Open Access KIOSK, 2019-10-25, Portugal, Organized by Lina Morgado, Type: interactive, workshop

  • Open Access Week Portugal, 2015-10-19, Portugal, Organized by Raquel Truta, Type: oaw, 2015

  • The 5th Luso-Brasilien Open Access Conference took place in Coimbra, Portugal on 6-8 October 2014 .  On the 8th of October, the Portuguese Task Force met to discuss best practices to develop and implement OA policies in the country and the recently launched OA policy of the public major funder (FCT), and also to be informed about the last developments regarding Open Access issues at national and international level. The project coordinator, Victoria Tsoukala also participated in the meeting. After the meeting, the participants had the opportunity to attend the workshop entitled " How to comply with the OA requirements of the Horizon2020 " addressed by Eloy Rodrigues (University of Minho), Victoria Tsoukala (EKT, Greece), and Ana Luísa Silva (University of Coimbra).

  • 2015 April 14-16 Porto, Portugal : Joint SPARC-COAR Conference. Organised by The Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) and Confederation of Open Access Repositories (COAR)

  • Introducing PRIME: Publisher, Repository and Institutional Metadata Exchange , OpenAIRE Interoperability Workshop, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal, February 8, 2013.

  • Communicating Science. Scientific Publication and its Audience, 2013-10-25, Portugal, Organized by Anabela Gradim / LabCom, Type: conference

  • Workshop "U.Porto - Acesso Aberto à Informação. Arquivos, Bibliotecas e Repositórios Digitais", 2013-10-22, Portugal, Organized by U.Porto, Type: workshop

  • 6-8 February 2013: UMinho Open Access Seminar held in Braga, Portugal- Two workshops were organized:

    • The MedOANet European Workshop brought together decision-makers and task force representatives from the six Mediterranean countries: Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Greece and Turkey . OA experts and representatives of relevant European and international organizations and initiatives also took part. The workshop produced a final document with conclusions/recommendations on how to implement coordinated policies in line with the European Commission’s Open Access policies and initiatives in view of the current state of OA in the aforementioned countries.

    • The OpenAIRE workshop concentrated on interoperability between research infrastructures, namely between publication and data repositories. A fuller understanding of how data repositories can communicate with each other is an important milestone in OpenAIRE. The goals of the workshop were: 1) dissemination and awareness of OpenAIRE guidelines. This will include a discussion of uptake by national initiatives and identification of data initiatives; 2) a technical discussion about the challenges and approaches to interoperability faced by OpenAIRE. Selected data sources were presented and focused on discussions on how to create links, the challenges involved and how to prioritize. Other topics of discussion included metadata formats, usage statistics, unique IDs, input/output formats and interpretation of enhanced publications.


  • 17 November 2014: "Portugal Open Access Policy Landscape (Pasteur 4OA Project)"- This case study includes a brief description of the Portuguese higher education and research systems, followed by a short history of the development of Open Access policies in the country, including all aspects of implementation and supported infrastructures. It concludes listing some challenges and ongoing developments.

  • Abdi, A. M. 2013. “Integrating Open Access Geospatial Data to Map the Habitat Suitability of the Declining Corn Bunting (Miliaria Calandra).” ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 2(4):935–54. doi: 10.3390/ijgi2040935.

  • Beas Jiménez, J. D., M. E. da Silva-Grigoleto, L. Jiménez López, C. López López, C. Rodríguez Sorroche, S. Espinosa Soler, D. Jiménez-Pavón, and M. L. Dias-Estriga. 2018. “Sant Joan d’Alacant Declaration in Defense of Open Access to Scientifc Publications, by the Group of Editors of Spanish Journals on Health Sciences (GERECS). [Declaración de Sant Joan d’Alacant En Defensa Del Acceso Abierto a Las Publicaciones Científcas, Del Grupo de Editores de Revistas Españolas Sobre Ciencias de La Salud (GERECS).].” Revista Andaluza de Medicina Del Deporte 11(4):190–91. doi: 10.33155/j.ramd.2018.04.001.

  • Boavida, C. P., and M. J. Amante. 2019. “Open 24 Hours: Online Course and Open Access Thematic Guide [Open 24 Horas: Curso on-Line e Guia Temático Sobre Acesso Aberto].” Ciencia Da Informacao 48(3):367–70.

  • Cardoso, G., J. Caraça, R. Espanha, J. Triães, and S. Mendonça. 2009. “Open Access Policies: Scientific Res Publica or Self-Management? [As Políticas de Open Access: Res Publica Científica Ou Autogestão?].” Sociologia, Problemas e Praticas 60:53–67.

  • Cardoso, G., J. Caraça, R. Espanha, S. Mendonça, P. A. David, M. den Besten, and R. Schroeder. 2010. Will E-Science Be Open Science?: The Politics of Open Access.

  • Cardoso, T., and R. Abreu. 2015. Mobile Learning and Education: Synthesis of Open Access Research.

  • Carvalho, J., C. Laranjeira, V. Vaz, and J. M. Moreira. 2017. “Monitoring a National Open Access Funder Mandate.” Pp. 283–90 in Procedia Computer Science. Vol. 106.

  • Correia, A. M. R., and J. C. Teixeira. 2005a. “Reforming Scholarly Publishing and Knowledge Communication: From the Advent of the Scholarly Journal to the Challenges of Open Access.” Online Information Review 29(4):349–64. doi: 10.1108/14684520510617802.

  • Correia, A. M. R., and J. C. Teixeira. 2005b. “Reforming Scholarly Publishing and Knowledge Communication: From the Advent of the Scholarly Journal to the Challenges of Open Access.” Information Services and Use 25(1):13–21. doi: 10.3233/ISU-2005-25103.

  • Correia, A.M.R and Neto, M.C (2002) The Role of Eprint Archives in the Access to, and Dissemination of, Scientific Grey Literature: LIZA—A Case Study by the National Library of Portugal. Journal of Information Science Vol 28, 3: 231–41.

  • Correia, A.M.R and Teixeira, J.C (2005) Reforming scholarly publishing and knowledge communication: From the advent of the scholarly journal to the challenges of Open Access Information Services & Use Vol. 25, 13–21. Journal of Information Science Vol 28, 3: 231–41. doi: 10.1108/14684520510617802

  • Di Salvo, I., M. Mwoka, T. Kwaga, P. A. Rukundo, D. S. Ernest, L. A. Osaheni, K. John, K. Shafik, and A. M. de Sousa. 2015. “Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Uganda.” Pan African Medical Journal 21. doi: 10.11604/pamj.2015.21.129.6325.

  • Faria, C., J. Fonseca, and E. Bicho. 2020. “FIBR3DEmul—an Open-Access Simulation Solution for 3D Printing Processes of FDM Machines with 3+ Actuated Axes.” International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 106(7–8):3609–23. doi: 10.1007/s00170-019-04713-y.

  • Fernandez-Llimos, F. 2014. “Open Access, Predatory Publishing and Peer-Review.” Pharmacy Practice 12(1). doi: 10.4321/S1886-36552014000100001.

  • Fernandez-Llimos, F. 2015. “Collaborative Publishing: The Difference between ‘Gratis Journals’ and ‘Open Access Journals.’” Pharmacy Practice 13(1). doi: 10.18549/pharmpract.2015.01.595.

  • García-Díez, J., D. Moura, M. M. Nascimento, and C. Saraiva. 2018. “Performance Assessment of Open-Access Information about Food Safety.” Journal Fur Verbraucherschutz Und Lebensmittelsicherheit 13(2):113–24. doi: 10.1007/s00003-018-1150-4.

  • Guardado, M. C., and M. M. Borges. 2011. “Some Trends in Electronic Publication and Open Access in Portuguese History Journals.” Information Services and Use 31(3–4):235–41. doi: 10.3233/ISU-2012-0653.

  • Guardado, M. C., and M. M. Borges. 2012. “Some Trends in Electronic Publication and Open Access in Portuguese History Journals.” in ELPUB 2012 - Social Shaping of Digital Publishing: Exploring the Interplay Between Culture and Technology, 16th International Conference on Electronic Publishing.

  • Harnad, S. (2005) The Implementation of the Berlin Declaration on Open Access. D-lib Magazine, 11 (3).

  • Henle, K., S. Bell, L. Brotons, J. Clobert, D. Evans, C. Görg, M. Grodzinska-Jurczak, B. Gruber, Y. Haila, P. Y. Henry, A. Huth, R. Julliard, P. Keil, M. Kleyer, D. Johan Kotze, W. Kunin, S. Lengyel, Y. P. Lin, A. Loyau, G. W. Luck, W. Magnusson, C. Margules, Y. Matsinos, P. May, I. Sousa-Pinto, H. Possingham, S. Potts, I. Ring, J. S. Pryke, M. J. Samways, D. Saunders, D. Schmeller, J. Similä, S. Sommer, I. Steffan-Dewenter, P. Stoev, M. T. Sykes, B. Tóthmérész, J. Tzanopoulos, R. Yam, and L. Penev. 2012. “Nature Conservation - A New Dimension in Open Access Publishing Bridging Science and Application.” Nature Conservation 1:1–10. doi: 10.3897/natureconservation.1.3081.

  • July 19, 2013: Richard Poynder interview- Eloy Rodrigues on the state of Open Access: Where are we, what still needs to be done? -This was the sixth Q&A; in a series exploring the current state of Open Access (OA). On this occasion the questions were answered by Eloy Rodrigues, Portuguese librarian and Director of the University of Minho’s Documentation Services.

  • Jungnickel, V., M. C. Parker, J. F. Riera, C. Bock, V. Marques, D. Levi, D. Schulz, J. Hilt, K. Habel, L. F. Del Rosal, R. Freund, and S. D. Walker. 2016. “Software-Defined Open Access for Flexible and Service-Oriented 5G Deployment.” Pp. 360–66 in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops, ICC 2016.

  • Lawlor, B., R. D. Weir, and H. D. Burrows. 2017. “Open Access: Why IUPAC Is a Supporter.” Pure and Applied Chemistry 89(12):1737–38. doi: 10.1515/pac-2017-1004.

  • Lopes, A. L. 2019. “The Influence of Open Access in Citations and Alternative Metrics: The Case of ISCTE-IUL [A Influência Do Acesso Aberto Nas Citações e Nas Métricas Alternativas: O Caso Do ISCTE-IUL].” Ciencia Da Informacao 48(3):147–52.

  • Lopes, C., A. Leite, and M. J. Vasconcelos. 2019. “Open-Access Cloud Resources Contribute to Mainstream REDD+: The Case of Mozambique.” Land Use Policy 82:48–60. doi: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2018.11.049.

  • March 2015: "Academic Publishing in Portugal: Threats and Major opportunities" by Delfim Leao (Director, Coimbra University Press, Portugal) Published in Insights 28(1).

  • Marques, C. A. F., M. Marta-Almeida, and J. M. Castanheira. 2020. “Three-Dimensional Normal Mode Functions: Open-Access Tools for Their Computation in Isobaric Coordinates (p-3DNMF.V1).” Geoscientific Model Development 13(6):2763–81. doi: 10.5194/gmd-13-2763-2020.

  • Martín-Perea, D. M., A. Abrunhosa, M. S. Domingo, E. Cantero, I. Menéndez, F. Blanco, P. M. Carro-Rodríguez, L. Domingo, M. Hernández Fernández, and J. Morales. 2020. “Digapp and Taphonomapp: Two New Open-Access Palaeontological and Archaeological Mobile Apps.” Palaeontologia Electronica 23(2):1–10. doi: 10.26879/1043.

  • Moreira, D. S., L. A. S. Da Silva, and A. E. Yanai. 2019. “Systems Interoperability to Enable Open Access to UFAM’s Scientific Initiation Reports [Interoperabilidade de Sistemas Para Viabilização Do Acesso Aberto Aos Relatórios de Iniciação Científica Da UFAM].” Ciencia Da Informacao 48(3):490–91.

  • Moreira, J M  RCAAP: Portuguese Open Access. Scientific Repository. 5th UNICA Scholarly Communication Seminar.

  • Oliveira, A., A. B. Fortunato, J. Rogeiro, J. Teixeira, A. Azevedo, L. Lavaud, X. Bertin, J. Gomes, M. David, J. Pina, M. Rodrigues, and P. Lopes. 2020. “OPENCoastS: An Open-Access Service for the Automatic Generation of Coastal Forecast Systems.” Environmental Modelling and Software 124. doi: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2019.104585.

  • Oliveira, A., M. Rodrigues, J. Rogeiro, A. B. Fortunato, J. Teixeira, A. Azevedo, and P. Lopes. 2019. “OPENCoastS: An Open-Access App for Sharing Coastal Prediction Information for Management and Recreation.” Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Including Subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) 11540 LNCS:794–807. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-22750-0_80.

  • Pierce, G. J., and I. Theodossiou. 2018. “Open Access Publishing: A Service or a Detriment to Science?” Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics 18:37–48. doi: 10.3354/ESEP00184.

  • Pinto, M J and Fernandez, S The library’s role in the quality and excellence in higher education: a Portuguese case study, QQML2011: Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Libraries, International Conference, Athens Greece, 24-27 May 2011.

  • Pitchford, L. C., L. L. Alves, K. Bartschat, S. F. Biagi, M. C. Bordage, I. Bray, C. E. Brion, M. J. Brunger, L. Campbell, A. Chachereau, B. Chaudhury, L. G. Christophorou, E. Carbone, N. A. Dyatko, C. M. Franck, D. V. Fursa, R. K. Gangwar, V. Guerra, P. Haefliger, G. J. M. Hagelaar, A. Hoesl, Y. Itikawa, I. V. Kochetov, R. P. McEachran, W. L. Morgan, A. P. Napartovich, V. Puech, M. Rabie, L. Sharma, R. Srivastava, A. D. Stauffer, J. Tennyson, J. de Urquijo, J. van Dijk, L. A. Viehland, M. C. Zammit, O. Zatsarinny, and S. Pancheshnyi. 2017. “LXCat: An Open-Access, Web-Based Platform for Data Needed for Modeling Low Temperature Plasmas.” Plasma Processes and Polymers 14(1–2). doi: 10.1002/ppap.201600098.

  • Ramos, S., A. S. Fernandes, and N. Saraiva. 2020. “Gene Expression and Survival Analysis in Cancer Research Using Online Open Access Platforms: A Comparative Analysis [Plataformas ‘Open Access’ Para Análise de Expressão Génica e Sobrevida Em Oncologia: Uma Análise Comparativa].” Biomedical and Biopharmaceutical Research 17(2):1–19. doi: 10.19277/BBR.17.2.247.

  • Ribeiro, I., V. Proença, P. Serra, J. Palma, C. Domingo-Marimon, X. Pons, and T. Domingos. 2019. “Remotely Sensed Indicators and Open-Access Biodiversity Data to Assess Bird Diversity Patterns in Mediterranean Rural Landscapes.” Scientific Reports 9(1). doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-43330-3.

  • Rocha, B. M., D. Filos, L. Mendes, G. Serbes, S. Ulukaya, Y. P. Kahya, N. Jakovljevic, T. L. Turukalo, I. M. Vogiatzis, E. Perantoni, E. Kaimakamis, P. Natsiavas, A. Oliveira, C. Jácome, A. Marques, N. Maglaveras, R. Pedro Paiva, I. Chouvarda, and P. De Carvalho. 2019. “An Open Access Database for the Evaluation of Respiratory Sound Classification Algorithms.” Physiological Measurement 40(3). doi: 10.1088/1361-6579/ab03ea.

  • Rocha, E., D. E. Hinton, and E. Wisse. 2004. “Comparative Hepatology: A Journal for All Hepatologists with Immediate Open Access to Quality Peer-Reviewed Research.” Comparative Hepatology 3. doi: 10.1186/1476-5926-3-1.

  • Rodrigues, E. 2017. “Open Access to Publications and Research Data in Horizon 2020: What Are the Requirements and How Can Institutional Repositories and Openaire Help to Meet Them?” Pp. 353–60 in Digital Presentation and Preservation of Cultural and Scientific Heritage. Vol. 4.

  • Sá, M. J., and S. Serpa. 2020. “Some Issues on the Funding of the Scientific Publication in Open Access.” Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 9(4):77–85. doi: 10.36941/ajis-2020-0063.

  • Sale, A., M. Couture, E. Rodrigues, L. Carr, and S. Harnad. 2014. Open Access Mandates and the Fair Dealing Button.

  • Sampson, D. G., D. Ifenthaler, J. M. Spector, and P. Isaías. 2014. Digital Systems for Open Access to Formal and Informal Learning.

  • Sampson, D. G., D. Ifenthaler, P. Isaías, and J. M. Spector. 2014. Digital Systems for Open Access to Formal and Informal Learning.

  • Saraiva, R and Rodrigues, E (2009). Open access in Portugal: a state of the art report. RCAAP: Braga, Portugal.

  • Silva, A. L., M. Bernardes, B. Neves, and A. M. E. Miguéis. 2019. “Almamater: The Cultural Heritage of the University of Coimbra in Open Access [Almamater: A Herança Cultural Da Universidade de Coimbra Em Acesso Aberto].” Ciencia Da Informacao 48(3):314–18.

  • Sousa, L., V. Silva, and P. Bazzurro. 2017. “Using Open-Access Data in the Development of Exposure Data Sets of Industrial Buildings for Earthquake Risk Modeling.” Earthquake Spectra 33(1):63–84. doi: 10.1193/020316EQS027M.

  • Veiga, P., C. Pita, L. Leite, J. Ribeiro, R. B. Ditton, J. M. S. Gonçalves, and K. Erzini. 2013. “From a Traditionally Open Access Fishery to Modern Restrictions: Portuguese Anglers’ Perceptions about Newly Implemented Recreational Fishing Regulations.” Marine Policy 40(1):53–63. doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2012.12.037.

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