The OA awareness in Norway is on a high level from the governmental top down to the institutional level. There is still a lot of work to raise the awareness on the level of the individual researcher. Norway promotes open access through institutional mandates and funder mandates. All work is coordinated by CRIStin, a governmental body with the responsibility for coordination of Open Access affairs.

As per March 2021, There are approximately 65 institutional repositories in Norway covering the entire higher education sector. Specialized health care is also covered well by a single common archive. The research institutes are lagging a little bit further behind, but the coverage is increasing rapidly. According to DOAJ Norway publishes 115 Open Access journals. Currently, 11 OA policies are registered in ROARMAP.

29 January, 2014: The Nordic Council of Ministers (NCM) introduced an Open Access mandate which applies to all written publications published by the NCM from 1 June 2014 onwards. The mandate and its effectiveness is to be evaluated annually by the NCM. In a second step, planned to be initiated during 2014, the Open Access mandate will be further developed and made applicable also to all written publications funded or co-funded by NCM grants or under NCM contracts. It was recommended that all written publications published by the NCM are published with a Creative Commons license, preferably CC-BY or CC-BY SA. This mandate applies to the NCM secretariat, NordForsk, Nordic Innovation, Nordic Energy Research, Nordicom, Nordic School of Public Health, Nordregio, and Nordic Centre for Welfare and Social Issues.

The Nordic Council of Ministers (NCM) is a publically funded co-operation between the governments of the Nordic countries (

The Research Council of Norway recently launched the STIM-OA scheme to facilitate the transition to Open Access publication and to ensure that the results of publicly funded research are made as openly accessible as possible.  The STIM-OA scheme will provide support to institutional publication funds or the like by covering up to 50 per cent of the institutions’ costs for open access publication from the previous fiscal year. The scheme is time limited, with a duration of five years (2015–2019).The STIM-OA scheme is open to all subject areas and all approved research institutions in Norway.

Enabling Environment

The Berlin Declaration is not getting the attention it deserves; there are only a few signatories. Norwegian Research Council who is by far the biggest funder in Norway has strengthened their OA-policy, following up the government’s policy on the area. Open Access is firmly stated in two White Papers and thus provides the basis for the coordinating body CRIStin.

National and Institutional Level Policies/Mandates

In 2017 the Norwegian government announced their national goals and guidelines for Open Access to research publications. The aim of the policy is that all publicly funded research should be made openly available by 2024. To achieve this the Norwegian government has established specific guidelines and measures.

All Norwegian universities, and most research performing university colleges, have Open Access policies in place. As well as being aligned with the national policy, they are in general focused on self-archiving and depositing publications in institutional repositories.

Norway has two white papers that explicitly state Open Access as a principle, but this is yet to be transformed into an action plan.

Potential Barriers

      The major barrier is the lack of awareness of OA amongst individual researches; and the way OA is perceived as conflicting with academic freedom

      Though universities are well covered with institutional mandates; there is lack of policies in the health care and institute sector.

Key Organizations

Current Research Information System in Norway (Cristin)

Overview: Cristin is a organisation for research information and documentation in Norway. The organisation has been given responsibility and established by the Ministry of Education and Research and Ministry of Health and Care Services, and will cover the higher eduaction sector, research institutes and health autorities.

OA mandate: Responsibility for OA coordinaton

Communication address: Cristin, Forskningsveien 3b (map) 0373 OSLO Norway; e-mail: postmottak(at)

National Library of Norway (NB)

Overview: The National Library of Norway aims to be the main source of information on Norway, its people and its culture and to make this available to the public. It has two sites in Oslo and Mo i Rana. It is the Legal Deposit Library of Norway.

OA mandate: Participant in European Digital Library (EDL) project.

Communication address: (Oslo) Henrik Ibsens Gate 110, NO-0225, Oslo, Norway; e-mail: nb(at)

Norwegian Research Council

Overview: The Research Council is Norway's official body for the development and implementation of national research strategy. The Council is the primary research and funding body in Norway and encourages international research cooperation.

OA mandate: Requires Open Access archive as part of the research funding process. Recommends self archiving of peer-reviewed articles in institutional OA archives or through OA electronic journals and allows for the expiry of the publisher's embargo period to be respected.

Communication address: Norwegian Research Council,  Stensberggata 26, Oslo, Norway; e-mail:  post(at)

Norwegian Knowledge Centre for Health Services Helsebiblioteket

Overview: The Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services (NOKC) provides research information, publicises research results and  contributing to quality improvement and health service metrication to improve patient safety.

OA mandate: HeRA is the Norwegian Electronic Health Library's (Helsebiblioteket) open research archive for hospitals and other health institutions in Norway. It holds post print archives of peer reviewed journal articles, reviews, reports and other publications.

Communication address: Nasjonalt kunnskapssenter for helsetjenesten, PO Box 7004, St. Olavs plass, N-0130 Oslo, Norway; e-mail: post(at)

University of Bergen

Overview: The University of Bergen is an urban university with two sites: Årstadvollen is the University's "health campus", where dentistry, medicine and health-care lie close to the Haukeland and Haraldsplass university clinics and Nygårdshøyden where Natural and social sciences, psychology, the arts and law are taught.

OA mandate: A founder member of NORA, the university hosts Bergen Open Research Archive (BORA), its institutional repository for scientific and research outputs from the University of Bergen.

Communication address: University of Bergen Postboks 7800, NO-5020 BERGEN Bergen, Norway; e-mail: post(at)

University of Oslo (UiO)

Overview: The University is an active participant in the EU Seventh Framework Programme for research and development. It has 8 Centres of Excellence: Molecular Biology and Neuroscience; Physics of Geological Processes; Mathematics for Applications;  Equality, Social Organization and Performance ; Study of Mind in Nature; Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis; Cancer Biomedicine; Immune Regulation; Theoretical and Computational Chemistry.

OA mandate: All researchers must deposit their metadata (for articles) in FRIDA, UiO's research documentation system. It is as yet only compulsory to deposit metadata, not full-text.

University of Oslo also hosts DUO, a full-text institutional repository. It is planned to integrate the two systems to aloe self-archiving of full-text through FRIDA for transfer to DUO.

Communication address: Postboks 1085, Blindern 0317 Oslo e-mail: postmottak(at)

The University of Tromso

Overview: The University of Tromso a broad range of subject fields in six faculties/schools with studies in humanities, social sciences, natural sciences/mathematics/statistics/informatics, law, medical sciences and fisheries science at Bachelor's, Master's and PhD level. Priority subject areas are mainly related to the Arctic and subarctic regions; Northern Light and space research, fisheries research, biotechnology, multicultural societies, indigenous studies, community medicine, theoretical linguistics, among others. The University has a Strategy on Internationalisation based on the notion of academic quality and seeks to strengthen all aspects of the University’s activities.

OA mandate: A founder member of NORA, University of Tromso offers Munin Open research archive depository and Septentrio Academic Publishing, a publishing infrastructure for scientific and scholarly journals/serials. A publication fund has been established to cover APCs for research without sufficient external funding.

Communication address: University of Tromsø, Romssa universitehta, N-9037 Tromso, Norway; e-mail:posymottak(at)

University of Trondheim (NTNU)

Overview: NTNU is the Norwegian University of Science and Technology and is at the forefront of technological innovation. It has 7 faculties; hosts 3 Centres of Excellence:  Quantifiable Quality of Service (Q2S);  Ships and Ocean Structure (CeSOS); Centre for the Biology of Memory (CBM) and hosts 4 Centres of Innovation:  Integrated Operations in the Petroleum Industry; Medical Imaging Laboratory for Innovative Future Healthcare; Structural Impact Laboratory; Sustainable Arctic Marine and Coastal Technology  promoting research and development in cooperation with  industry and  other research organisations.

OA mandate: Founder member of NORA; has an agreement for free OA publishing with Springer (Open Choice).

Communication address: NTNU, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway; e-mail: postmottak(at)

Norwegian Social Data Center (NSD)

The Norwegian Association of Higher Education Institutions, (UHR)


Events and Programs

     The OA journal "Nordic Perspectives on Open Science" launches!, 2015-10-23, Norway, Organized by Jan Erik Frantsvåg.

     14-15 August, 2014: 'What is the Status of Open Access to Research Data in the Nordic Countries?' To increase and exchange knowledge about the respective Nordic countries’ views on Open Access, NordForsk invited representatives of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and the European Commission to a workshop on 14-15 August to discuss Open Access to research data.

     30 November- 01 December 2015: The 10th Munin Conference on Scholarly Publishing; Tromsø, Norway.

     26-27 November 2014: The 9th Munin Conference on Scholarly Publishing; UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway

     23-27 June 2014: IMBER Open Science Conference: Future Oceans; Bergen, Norway.

     The 5th Munin Conference on Scientific Publishing, 2010-11-25, Norway, Organized by University of Tromsø, Type: conference


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     Kennedy, J., and R. Hannesson. 2006. “Within-Season Rents: Maximised or Dissipated in an Open-Access Fishery?” Marine Resource Economics 21(3):251–67. doi: 10.1086/mre.21.3.42629510.

     Khan, A., O. Fornes, A. Stigliani, M. Gheorghe, J. A. Castro-Mondragon, R. Van Der Lee, A. Bessy, J. Chèneby, S. R. Kulkarni, G. Tan, D. Baranasic, D. J. Arenillas, A. Sandelin, K. Vandepoele, B. Lenhard, B. Ballester, W. W. Wasserman, F. Parcy, and A. Mathelier. 2018. “JASPAR 2018: Update of the Open-Access Database of Transcription Factor Binding Profiles and Its Web Framework.” Nucleic Acids Research 46(D1):D260–66. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx1126.

     Lancker, K., A. L. Deppenmeier, T. Demissie, and J. O. Schmidt. 2019. “Climate Change Adaptation and the Role of Fuel Subsidies: An Empirical Bio-Economic Modeling Study for an Artisanal Open-Access Fishery.” PLoS ONE 14(8). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0220433.

     Long, L. K., O. Flaaten, and N. T. K. Anh. 2008. “Economic Performance of Open-Access Offshore Fisheries-The Case of Vietnamese Longliners in the South China Sea.” Fisheries Research 93(3):296–304. doi: 10.1016/j.fishres.2008.05.013.

     Lossius, H. M., and K. Søreide. 2011. “Open Access Publishing: A Girder in the Success of the Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine.” Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 19. doi: 10.1186/1757-7241-19-7.

     Martinsen, Ø. G. 2016. “The Dark Side of Open Access.” Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance 7(1):1. doi: 10.5617/jeb.2960.

     Mathelier, A., X. Zhao, A. W. Zhang, F. Parcy, R. Worsley-Hunt, D. J. Arenillas, S. Buchman, C. Y. Chen, A. Chou, H. Ienasescu, J. Lim, C. Shyr, G. Tan, M. Zhou, B. Lenhard, A. Sandelin, and W. W. Wasserman. 2014. “JASPAR 2014: An Extensively Expanded and Updated Open-Access Database of Transcription Factor Binding Profiles.” Nucleic Acids Research 42(D1):D142–47. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkt997.

     McSean, T., and A. Jakobsson. 2009. “The Open Access Association? EAHIL’s New Model for Sustainability.” Health Information and Libraries Journal 26(4):316–21. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-1842.2009.00843.x.

     Mehlum, H. 2012. “The Case for Open Access Publishing.” International Studies Perspectives 13(3):216–23. doi: 10.1111/j.1528-3585.2012.00490.x.

     Miljeteig, I., F. Berhane, and D. Desalegn. 2017. “A Call for Open Access and Empathy Is Not Enough: Hands on Are Needed!” American Journal of Bioethics 17(10):28–30. doi: 10.1080/15265161.2017.1365191.

     Moksness, L., and S. O. Olsen. 2017. “Understanding Researchers’ Intention to Publish in Open Access Journals.” Journal of Documentation 73(6):1149–66. doi: 10.1108/JD-02-2017-0019.

     Müller, L., R. Gangadharaiah, S. C. Klein, J. Perry, G. Bernstein, D. Nurkse, D. Wailes, R. Graham, R. El-Kareh, S. Mehta, S. A. Vinterbo, and E. Aronoff-Spencer. 2019. “An Open Access Medical Knowledge Base for Community Driven Diagnostic Decision Support System Development.” BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 19(1). doi: 10.1186/s12911-019-0804-1.

     Nieder, C., A. Dalhaug, and G. Aandahl. 2013. “Correlation between Article Download and Citation Figures for Highly Accessed Articles from Five Open Access Oncology Journals.” SpringerPlus 2(1):1–5. doi: 10.1186/2193-1801-2-261.

     Pohlmann, A., S. J. Back, A. Fekete, I. Friedli, S. Hectors, N. P. Jerome, M. C. Ku, D. L. Longo, M. Meier, J. M. Millward, J. S. Periquito, E. Seeliger, S. D. Serai, S. Waiczies, S. Sourbron, C. Laustsen, and T. Niendorf. 2021. “Recommendations for Preclinical Renal Mri: A Comprehensive Open-Access Protocol Collection to Improve Training, Reproducibility, and Comparability of Studies.” Methods in Molecular Biology 2216:3–23. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-0978-1_1.

     Pölönen, J., R. Guns, E. Kulczycki, M. Laakso, and G. Sivertsen. 2019. “Open Access Challenge at the National Level: Comprehensive Analysis of Publication Channels Used by Finnish Researchers in 2016-2017.” Pp. 1776–87 in 17th International Conference on Scientometrics and Informetrics, ISSI 2019 - Proceedings. Vol. 2.

     Portales-Casamar, E., S. Thongjuea, A. T. Kwon, D. Arenillas, X. Zhao, E. Valen, D. Yusuf, B. Lenhard, W. W. Wasserman, and A. Sandelin. 2009. “JASPAR 2010: The Greatly Expanded Open-Access Database of Transcription Factor Binding Profiles.” Nucleic Acids Research 38(SUPPL.1):D105–10. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp950.

     Procter-Legg, E., A. Cacchione, S. Abbas Petersen, and M. Winter. 2014. Open Access to Formal and Informal Learning: Methods and Technologies Mobile Language Learners as Social Networkers.

     Quale, S., and N. A. Røkke. 2014. “Open Access to World-Class Research Facilities: The European CCS Laboratory Infrastructure, ECCSEL.” Pp. 8069–96 in Energy Procedia. Vol. 63.

     Qvist, P., and C. D. Jacobsen. 1993. “Open Access Upper Endoscopy. Can the Practice Be Improved? [Apen Mottakelse Til Øvre Endoskopi. Kan Praksis Forbedres?].” Tidsskrift for Den Norske Laegeforening 113(2):222–24.

     Regmi, G. R., F. Huettmann, M. K. Suwal, V. Nijman, K. Nekaris, K. Kandel, N. Sharma, and C. Coudrat. 2018. “First Open Access Ensemble Climate Envelope Predictions of Assamese Macaque Macaca Assamensis in Asia: A New Role Model and Assessment of Endangered Species.” Endangered Species Research 36:149–60. doi: 10.3354/esr00888.

     Sivertsen, G., R. Guns, E. Kulczycki, and J. Pölönen. 2019. “The Use of Gold Open Access in Four European Countries: An Analysis at the Level of Articles.” Pp. 1600–1605 in 17th International Conference on Scientometrics and Informetrics, ISSI 2019 - Proceedings. Vol. 2.

     Suwal, M. K., and F. Huettmann. 2020. A Rather Short Story of Shared GIS Data Layers in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas: State of the Art, Justifications and Urgent Suggestions for a Sustainable Global Data Governance with Open Access and Open Source Coming to the Rescue.

     Svarstad, H., H. Chr. Bugge, and S. S. Dhillion. 2000. “From Norway to Novartis: Cyclosporin from Tolypocladium Inflatum in an Open Access Bioprospecting Regime.” Biodiversity and Conservation 9(11):1521–41. doi: 10.1023/A:1008990919682.

     Tinelli, A., A. Malvasi, G. Hudelist, O. Istre, and J. Keckstein. 2009. “Abdominal Access in Gynaecologic Laparoscopy: A Comparison between Direct Optical and Open Access.” Journal of Laparoendoscopic and Advanced Surgical Techniques 19(4):529–33. doi: 10.1089/lap.2008.0322.

     Ugalde-Loo, C. E., O. D. Adeuyi, S. Wang, J. Liang, N. Jenkins, S. Ceballos, M. Santos, I. Vidaurrazaga, S. D’Arco, G. Bergna, M. Barenys, M. Parker, S. Finney, A. Gatti, A. Pitto, M. Rapizza, D. Cirio, P. Lund, A. Castro, and I. Azpiri. 2017. “Open Access Simulation Toolbox for the Grid Connection of Offshore Wind Farms Using Multi-Terminal HVDC Networks.” in IET Conference Publications. Vol. 2017.

     Vaagan, R. W. 2006. “Open Access and Bakhtinian Dialogism.” Pp. 165–73 in Digital Spectrum: Integrating Technology and Culture - Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Electronic Publishing, ELPUB 2006.

     Venkatraman, V., and L. K. Chellappan. 2020. “An Open Access Data Set Highlighting Aggregation of Dyes on Metal Oxides.” Data 5(2). doi: 10.3390/data5020045.

     Wdowik, R., and R. M. C. Ratnayake. 2019. “Open Access Digital Tools’ Application Potential in Technological Process Planning: SMMEs Perspective.” IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology 567:312–19. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-29996-5_36.

     Wenaas, L., N. Karlstrøm, and T. Vatnan. 2012. “From a National CRIS along the Road to Green Open Access - And Back Again: Building Infrastructure from CRIStin to Institutional Repositories in Norway.” Pp. 289–94 in CRIS 2012: e-Infrastructures for Research and Innovation - Linking Information Systems to Improve Scientific Knowledge Production - 11th International Conf. on Current Research Information Systems.

     Wheat, P., A. S. J. Smith, and T. Rasmussen. 2018. “Can Competition for and in the Market Co-Exist in Terms of Delivering Cost Efficient Services? Evidence from Open Access Train Operators and Their Franchised Counterparts in Britain.” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 113:114–24. doi: 10.1016/j.tra.2018.03.004.

     24 November, 2014: Case Study: Education, Research and Open Access in Norway , PASTEUR4OA Project

     3 February 2015: Going for True Gold: WHy the Norwegian Research Council is Taking a Stand Against Hybrid OA Journals- A guest post by Jan Erik Frantsvag;

     Frantsvag, J.E (2008) Open access in Norway – where are we, and where are we going? Sciecom Info, Vol. 4, 1. Open Access.

     Frantsvag, J.E (2010) The University of Tromso adopts an institutional open access policy. In ScieCom Info. Vol.6, 4. Open Access.

     Frantsvag, J.E (2011) The Open Access publication fund at the University of Tromso. In ScieCom Info. Vol 7, 1 (2011) Open Access.

     Harnad,S (2003) Open access to peer-reviewed research through author/institution selfarchiving: maximizing research impact by maximizing online access. In Digital Libraries: Policy, Planning, and Practice, eds. Derek Law and Judith Andrews: 63-98.

     Hedlund, T and Rabow, I (2009) Scholarly publishing and open access in the Nordic countries Learned Publishing Vol 22, 3:177-186.

     Huela, B N, (2010) Scholars and institutional repositories: perceptions of academic auth ors towards self-archiving their scholarly works in the Bergen Open Research Archive. Master’s Thesis. University of Oslo. Open Access.

     Thorsteinsdóttir, S (2010) OA Mandates and the Nordic Countries  Sciecom Info, Vol. 6, 1. Open Access.

     White Paper : Klima for forskning (Only in Norwegian)

     White paper : Lange linjer 

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