The OA awareness in Norway is on a high level from the governmental top down to the institutional level. There is still a lot of work to raise the awareness on the level of the individual researcher. Norway promotes open access through institutional mandates and funder mandates. All work is coordinated by CRIStin, a governmental body with the responsibility for coordination of Open Access affairs.
As per March 2021, There are approximately 65 institutional repositories in Norway covering the entire higher education sector. Specialized health care is also covered well by a single common archive. The research institutes are lagging a little bit further behind, but the coverage is increasing rapidly. According to DOAJ Norway publishes 115 Open Access journals. Currently, 11 OA policies are registered in ROARMAP.
29 January, 2014: The Nordic Council of Ministers (NCM) introduced an Open Access mandate which applies to all written publications published by the NCM from 1 June 2014 onwards. The mandate and its effectiveness is to be evaluated annually by the NCM. In a second step, planned to be initiated during 2014, the Open Access mandate will be further developed and made applicable also to all written publications funded or co-funded by NCM grants or under NCM contracts. It was recommended that all written publications published by the NCM are published with a Creative Commons license, preferably CC-BY or CC-BY SA. This mandate applies to the NCM secretariat, NordForsk, Nordic Innovation, Nordic Energy Research, Nordicom, Nordic School of Public Health, Nordregio, and Nordic Centre for Welfare and Social Issues.
The Nordic Council of Ministers (NCM) is a publically funded co-operation between the governments of the Nordic countries (www.norden.org).
The Research Council of Norway recently launched the STIM-OA scheme to facilitate the transition to Open Access publication and to ensure that the results of publicly funded research are made as openly accessible as possible. The STIM-OA scheme will provide support to institutional publication funds or the like by covering up to 50 per cent of the institutions’ costs for open access publication from the previous fiscal year. The scheme is time limited, with a duration of five years (2015–2019).The STIM-OA scheme is open to all subject areas and all approved research institutions in Norway.
The Berlin Declaration is not getting the attention it deserves; there are only a few signatories. Norwegian Research Council who is by far the biggest funder in Norway has strengthened their OA-policy, following up the government’s policy on the area. Open Access is firmly stated in two White Papers and thus provides the basis for the coordinating body CRIStin.
National and Institutional Level Policies/Mandates
In 2017 the Norwegian government announced their national goals and guidelines for Open Access to research publications. The aim of the policy is that all publicly funded research should be made openly available by 2024. To achieve this the Norwegian government has established specific guidelines and measures.
All Norwegian universities, and most research performing university colleges, have Open Access policies in place. As well as being aligned with the national policy, they are in general focused on self-archiving and depositing publications in institutional repositories.
Norway has two white papers that explicitly state Open Access as a principle, but this is yet to be transformed into an action plan.
● The major barrier is the lack of awareness of OA amongst individual researches; and the way OA is perceived as conflicting with academic freedom
● Though universities are well covered with institutional mandates; there is lack of policies in the health care and institute sector.
Current Research Information System in Norway (Cristin)
Overview: Cristin is a organisation for research information and documentation in Norway. The organisation has been given responsibility and established by the Ministry of Education and Research and Ministry of Health and Care Services, and will cover the higher eduaction sector, research institutes and health autorities.
OA mandate: Responsibility for OA coordinaton
Communication address: Cristin, Forskningsveien 3b (map) 0373 OSLO Norway; e-mail: postmottak(at)cristin.no
National Library of Norway (NB)
Overview: The National Library of Norway aims to be the main source of information on Norway, its people and its culture and to make this available to the public. It has two sites in Oslo and Mo i Rana. It is the Legal Deposit Library of Norway.
OA mandate: Participant in European Digital Library (EDL) project.
Communication address: (Oslo) Henrik Ibsens Gate 110, NO-0225, Oslo, Norway; e-mail: nb(at)nb.no
Overview: The Research Council is Norway's official body for the development and implementation of national research strategy. The Council is the primary research and funding body in Norway and encourages international research cooperation.
OA mandate: Requires Open Access archive as part of the research funding process. Recommends self archiving of peer-reviewed articles in institutional OA archives or through OA electronic journals and allows for the expiry of the publisher's embargo period to be respected.
Communication address: Norwegian Research Council, Stensberggata 26, Oslo, Norway; e-mail: post(at)forskningsradet.no
Norwegian Knowledge Centre for Health Services Helsebiblioteket
Overview: The Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services (NOKC) provides research information, publicises research results and contributing to quality improvement and health service metrication to improve patient safety.
OA mandate: HeRA is the Norwegian Electronic Health Library's (Helsebiblioteket) open research archive for hospitals and other health institutions in Norway. It holds post print archives of peer reviewed journal articles, reviews, reports and other publications.
Communication address: Nasjonalt kunnskapssenter for helsetjenesten, PO Box 7004, St. Olavs plass, N-0130 Oslo, Norway; e-mail: post(at)nokc.no.
Overview: The University of Bergen is an urban university with two sites: Årstadvollen is the University's "health campus", where dentistry, medicine and health-care lie close to the Haukeland and Haraldsplass university clinics and Nygårdshøyden where Natural and social sciences, psychology, the arts and law are taught.
OA mandate: A founder member of NORA, the university hosts Bergen Open Research Archive (BORA), its institutional repository for scientific and research outputs from the University of Bergen.
Communication address: University of Bergen Postboks 7800, NO-5020 BERGEN Bergen, Norway; e-mail: post(at)uib.no
University of Oslo (UiO)
Overview: The University is an active participant in the EU Seventh Framework Programme for research and development. It has 8 Centres of Excellence: Molecular Biology and Neuroscience; Physics of Geological Processes; Mathematics for Applications; Equality, Social Organization and Performance ; Study of Mind in Nature; Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis; Cancer Biomedicine; Immune Regulation; Theoretical and Computational Chemistry.
OA mandate: All researchers must deposit their metadata (for articles) in FRIDA, UiO's research documentation system. It is as yet only compulsory to deposit metadata, not full-text.
University of Oslo also hosts DUO, a full-text institutional repository. It is planned to integrate the two systems to aloe self-archiving of full-text through FRIDA for transfer to DUO.
Communication address: Postboks 1085, Blindern 0317 Oslo e-mail: postmottak(at)ub.uio.no
Overview: The University of Tromso a broad range of subject fields in six faculties/schools with studies in humanities, social sciences, natural sciences/mathematics/statistics/informatics, law, medical sciences and fisheries science at Bachelor's, Master's and PhD level. Priority subject areas are mainly related to the Arctic and subarctic regions; Northern Light and space research, fisheries research, biotechnology, multicultural societies, indigenous studies, community medicine, theoretical linguistics, among others. The University has a Strategy on Internationalisation based on the notion of academic quality and seeks to strengthen all aspects of the University’s activities.
OA mandate: A founder member of NORA, University of Tromso offers Munin Open research archive depository and Septentrio Academic Publishing, a publishing infrastructure for scientific and scholarly journals/serials. A publication fund has been established to cover APCs for research without sufficient external funding.
Communication address: University of Tromsø, Romssa universitehta, N-9037 Tromso, Norway; e-mail:posymottak(at)uit.no
University of Trondheim (NTNU)
Overview: NTNU is the Norwegian University of Science and Technology and is at the forefront of technological innovation. It has 7 faculties; hosts 3 Centres of Excellence: Quantifiable Quality of Service (Q2S); Ships and Ocean Structure (CeSOS); Centre for the Biology of Memory (CBM) and hosts 4 Centres of Innovation: Integrated Operations in the Petroleum Industry; Medical Imaging Laboratory for Innovative Future Healthcare; Structural Impact Laboratory; Sustainable Arctic Marine and Coastal Technology promoting research and development in cooperation with industry and other research organisations.
OA mandate: Founder member of NORA; has an agreement for free OA publishing with Springer (Open Choice).
Communication address: NTNU, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway; e-mail: postmottak(at)adm.ntnu.no
Norwegian Social Data Center (NSD)
Events and Programs
● The OA journal "Nordic Perspectives on Open Science" launches!, 2015-10-23, Norway, Organized by Jan Erik Frantsvåg.
● 14-15 August, 2014: 'What is the Status of Open Access to Research Data in the Nordic Countries?' To increase and exchange knowledge about the respective Nordic countries’ views on Open Access, NordForsk invited representatives of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and the European Commission to a workshop on 14-15 August to discuss Open Access to research data.
● 30 November- 01 December 2015: The 10th Munin Conference on Scholarly Publishing; Tromsø, Norway.
● 26-27 November 2014: The 9th Munin Conference on Scholarly Publishing; UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
● 23-27 June 2014: IMBER Open Science Conference: Future Oceans; Bergen, Norway.
● The 5th Munin Conference on Scientific Publishing, 2010-11-25, Norway, Organized by University of Tromsø, Type: conference
● Amundsen, E. S., T. Bjørndal, and J. M. Conrad. 1995. “Open Access Harvesting of the Northeast Atlantic Minke Whale.” Environmental & Resource Economics 6(2):167–85. doi: 10.1007/BF00691682.
● Armstrong, C. W., N. S. Foley, and V. Kahui. 2016. “A Production Function Analysis of Fisheries and Habitat: Open Access versus Optimal Management.” Land Economics 92(4):760–71. doi: 10.3368/le.92.4.760.
● Arnarson, H., B. Solvang, and B. Shu. 2020. “The Application of Open Access Middleware for Cooperation among Heterogeneous Manufacturing Systems.” in 2020 3rd International Symposium on Small-Scale Intelligent Manufacturing Systems, SIMS 2020.
● Bakken, T. 2010. “Fauna Norvegica - Online and Open Access.” Fauna Norvegica 30:1–3. doi: 10.5324/fn.v30i0.669.
● Baltzersen, R. K. 2010. “Radical Transparency: Open Access as a Key Concept in Wiki Pedagogy.” Australasian Journal of Educational Technology 26(6):791–809. doi: 10.14742/ajet.1043.
● Bjorndal, T., and J. M. Conrad. 1987. “The Dynamics of an Open Access Fishery.” Canadian Journal of Economics 20(1):74–85. doi: 10.2307/135232.
● Bryne, J. C., E. Valen, M. H. E. Tang, T. Marstrand, O. Winther, I. Da piedade, A. Krogh, B. Lenhard, and A. Sandelin. 2008. “JASPAR, the Open Access Database of Transcription Factor-Binding Profiles: New Content and Tools in the 2008 Update.” Nucleic Acids Research 36(SUPPL. 1):D102–6. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkm955.
● Calder, P. C., and A. Yngve. 2012a. “Open Access, the Creative Commons Attribution Licence, and the Nutrition Society Journals.” British Journal of Nutrition 108(11):1913–14. doi: 10.1017/S0007114512004928.
● Calder, P. C., and A. Yngve. 2012b. “Open Access, the Creative Commons Attribution Licence, and the Nutrition Society Journals.” Public Health Nutrition 15(12):2167–68. doi: 10.1017/S1368980012004831.
● Carmont, M. R., S. D. Lawn, B. Stray-Pedersen, Y. Shoenfeld, and P. Meier. 2014. “BMC Medicine Editorial Board Members on Open Access Publishing.” BMC Medicine 12(1). doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-12-10.
● Dallmeier-Tiessen, S., R. Darby, B. Goerner, J. Hyppoelae, P. Igo-Kemenes, D. Kahn, S. Lambert, A. Lengenfelder, C. Leonard, S. Mele, M. Nowicka, P. Polydoratou, D. Ross, S. Ruiz-Perez, R. Schimmer, M. Swaisland, and W. Van Der Stelt. 2011. “Open Access Journals - What Publishers Offer, What Researchers Want.” Information Services and Use 31(1–2):85–91. doi: 10.3233/ISU-2011-0624.
● Derawi, M. 2015. “E-Learning Protection of Open Access Platforms.” in 2014 International Conference on Web and Open Access to Learning, ICWOAL 2014.
● Duy, N. N., O. Flaaten, N. T. K. Anh, and Q. T. K. Ngoc. 2012. “Open-Access Fishing Rent and Efficiency-The Case of Gillnet Vessels in Nha Trang, Vietnam.” Fisheries Research 127–128:98–108. doi: 10.1016/j.fishres.2012.04.008.
● Edvardsen, E., T. G. Eskedal, and A. Åmes. 2003. “Open Access Networks.” IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology 119:91–107. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-35673-0_8.
● Fattah, S., K. M. Agledahl, M. Rehn, and T. Wisborg. 2017. “Experience with a Novel, Global, Open-Access Template for Major Incidents: Qualitative Feasibility Study.” Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness 11(4):403–6. doi: 10.1017/dmp.2016.156.
● Fevang, B. 2017. “Open Access - Elefanten (Eller Isbjørnen) i Rommet.” Tidsskrift for Den Norske Laegeforening 137(23–24). doi: 10.4045/tidsskr.17.1010.
● Fevang, B. 2018. “Open Access - Elefanten (Eller Isbjørnen) i Rommet.” Tidsskrift for Den Norske Laegeforening 138(2). doi: 10.4045/tidsskr.18.0019.
● Fornes, O., J. A. Castro-Mondragon, A. Khan, R. Van Der Lee, X. Zhang, P. A. Richmond, B. P. Modi, S. Correard, M. Gheorghe, D. Baranašić, W. Santana-Garcia, G. Tan, J. Chèneby, B. Ballester, F. Parcy, A. Sandelin, B. Lenhard, W. W. Wasserman, and A. Mathelier. 2020. “JASPAR 2020: Update of the Open-Access Database of Transcription Factor Binding Profiles.” Nucleic Acids Research 48(D1):D87–92. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkz1001.
● Frantsvåg, J. E. 2010a. “The Role of Advertising in Financing Open Access Journals.” First Monday 15(3). doi: 10.5210/fm.v15i3.2777.
● Frantsvåg, J. E. 2010b. “The Size Distribution of Open Access Publishers: A Problem for Open Access?” First Monday 15(12). doi: 10.5210/fm.v15i12.3208.
● Frantsvåg, J. E., and T. E. Strømme. 2019. “Few Open Access Journals Are Compliant with Plan S.” Publications 7(2). doi: 10.3390/publications7020026.
● Gjengedal, Terje, Jan Ove Gjerde, and Roger Flolo. 1996. “Transmission Open Access; Management, Operation and Pricing.” Pp. 917–20 in Proceedings of the Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference - MELECON. Vol. 2.
● Gleditsch, N. P. 2012. “Open Access in International Relations: A Symposium.” International Studies Perspectives 13(3):211–15. doi: 10.1111/j.1528-3585.2012.00464.x.
● Haug, C. 2013. “The Downside of Open-Access Publishing.” New England Journal of Medicine 368(9):791–93. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1214750.
● Ingwersen, P., and A. Elleby. 2011. “Do Open Access Working Papers Attract More Citations Compared to Printed Journal Articles from the Same Research Unit?” Pp. 327–32 in Proceedings of ISSI 2011 - 13th Conference of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics. Vol. 1.
● Jokstad, A. 2015. “The Wonderful Aspects of Open Access Publishing - and the Unfortunate Dark Side.” Clinical and Experimental Dental Research 1(1):1–2. doi: 10.1002/cre2.1.
● Jones, R., and T. Andrew. 2005. “Open Access, Open Source and e-Theses: The Development of the Edinburgh Research Archive.” Program 39(3):198–212. doi: 10.1108/00330330510610555.
● Kamerlin, S. C. L., D. J. Allen, B. de Bruin, E. Derat, and H. Urdal. 2021. “Journal Open Access and Plan S: Solving Problems or Shifting Burdens?” Development and Change. doi: 10.1111/dech.12635.
● Kattge, J., G. Bönisch, S. Díaz, S. Lavorel, I. C. Prentice, P. Leadley, S. Tautenhahn, G. D. A. Werner, T. Aakala, M. Abedi, A. T. R. Acosta, G. C. Adamidis, K. Adamson, M. Aiba, C. H. Albert, J. M. Alcántara, C. Alcázar C, I. Aleixo, H. Ali, B. Amiaud, C. Ammer, M. M. Amoroso, M. Anand, C. Anderson, N. Anten, J. Antos, D. M. G. Apgaua, T. L. Ashman, D. H. Asmara, G. P. Asner, M. Aspinwall, O. Atkin, I. Aubin, L. Baastrup-Spohr, K. Bahalkeh, M. Bahn, T. Baker, W. J. Baker, J. P. Bakker, D. Baldocchi, J. Baltzer, A. Banerjee, A. Baranger, J. Barlow, D. R. Barneche, Z. Baruch, D. Bastianelli, J. Battles, W. Bauerle, M. Bauters, E. Bazzato, M. Beckmann, H. Beeckman, C. Beierkuhnlein, R. Bekker, G. Belfry, M. Belluau, M. Beloiu, R. Benavides, L. Benomar, M. L. Berdugo-Lattke, E. Berenguer, R. Bergamin, J. Bergmann, M. Bergmann Carlucci, L. Berner, M. Bernhardt-Römermann, C. Bigler, A. D. Bjorkman, C. Blackman, C. Blanco, B. Blonder, D. Blumenthal, K. T. Bocanegra-González, P. Boeckx, S. Bohlman, K. Böhning-Gaese, L. Boisvert-Marsh, W. Bond, B. Bond-Lamberty, A. Boom, C. C. F. Boonman, K. Bordin, E. H. Boughton, V. Boukili, D. M. J. S. Bowman, S. Bravo, M. R. Brendel, M. R. Broadley, K. A. Brown, H. Bruelheide, F. Brumnich, H. H. Bruun, D. Bruy, S. W. Buchanan, S. F. Bucher, N. Buchmann, R. Buitenwerf, D. E. Bunker, J. Bürger, S. Burrascano, D. F. R. P. Burslem, B. J. Butterfield, C. Byun, M. Marques, M. C. Scalon, M. Caccianiga, M. Cadotte, M. Cailleret, J. Camac, J. J. Camarero, C. Campany, G. Campetella, J. A. Campos, L. Cano-Arboleda, R. Canullo, M. Carbognani, F. Carvalho, F. Casanoves, B. Castagneyrol, J. A. Catford, J. Cavender-Bares, B. E. L. Cerabolini, M. Cervellini, E. Chacón-Madrigal, K. Chapin, F. S. Chapin, S. Chelli, S. C. Chen, A. Chen, P. Cherubini, F. Chianucci, B. Choat, K. S. Chung, M. Chytrý, D. Ciccarelli, L. Coll, C. G. Collins, L. Conti, D. Coomes, J. H. C. Cornelissen, W. K. Cornwell, P. Corona, M. Coyea, J. Craine, D. Craven, J. P. G. M. Cromsigt, A. Csecserits, K. Cufar, M. Cuntz, A. C. da Silva, K. M. Dahlin, M. Dainese, I. Dalke, M. Dalle Fratte, A. T. Dang-Le, J. Danihelka, M. Dannoura, S. Dawson, A. J. de Beer, A. De Frutos, J. R. De Long, B. Dechant, S. Delagrange, N. Delpierre, G. Derroire, A. S. Dias, M. H. Diaz-Toribio, P. G. Dimitrakopoulos, M. Dobrowolski, D. Doktor, P. Dřevojan, N. Dong, J. Dransfield, S. Dressler, L. Duarte, E. Ducouret, S. Dullinger, W. Durka, R. Duursma, O. Dymova, A. E-Vojtkó, R. L. Eckstein, H. Ejtehadi, J. Elser, T. Emilio, K. Engemann, M. B. Erfanian, A. Erfmeier, A. Esquivel-Muelbert, G. Esser, M. Estiarte, T. F. Domingues, W. F. Fagan, J. Fagúndez, D. S. Falster, Y. Fan, J. Fang, E. Farris, F. Fazlioglu, Y. Feng, F. Fernandez-Mendez, C. Ferrara, J. Ferreira, A. Fidelis, B. Finegan, J. Firn, T. J. Flowers, D. F. B. Flynn, V. Fontana, E. Forey, C. Forgiarini, L. François, M. Frangipani, D. Frank, C. Frenette-Dussault, G. T. Freschet, E. L. Fry, N. M. Fyllas, G. G. 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Jenkins, A. Jentsch, J. R. P. Jespersen, G. F. Jiang, J. L. Johansen, D. Johnson, E. J. Jokela, C. A. Joly, G. J. Jordan, G. S. Joseph, D. Junaedi, R. R. Junker, E. Justes, R. Kabzems, J. Kane, Z. Kaplan, T. Kattenborn, L. Kavelenova, E. Kearsley, A. Kempel, T. Kenzo, A. Kerkhoff, M. I. Khalil, N. L. Kinlock, W. D. Kissling, K. Kitajima, T. Kitzberger, R. Kjøller, T. Klein, M. Kleyer, J. Klimešová, J. Klipel, B. Kloeppel, S. Klotz, J. M. H. Knops, T. Kohyama, F. Koike, J. Kollmann, B. Komac, K. Komatsu, C. König, N. J. B. Kraft, K. Kramer, H. Kreft, I. Kühn, D. Kumarathunge, J. Kuppler, H. Kurokawa, Y. Kurosawa, S. Kuyah, J. P. Laclau, B. Lafleur, E. Lallai, E. Lamb, A. Lamprecht, D. J. Larkin, D. Laughlin, Y. Le Bagousse-Pinguet, G. le Maire, P. C. le Roux, E. le Roux, T. Lee, F. Lens, S. L. Lewis, B. Lhotsky, Y. Li, X. Li, J. W. Lichstein, M. Liebergesell, J. Y. Lim, Y. S. Lin, J. C. Linares, C. Liu, D. Liu, U. Liu, S. Livingstone, J. Llusià, M. Lohbeck, Á. López-García, G. 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● 24 November, 2014: Case Study: Education, Research and Open Access in Norway , PASTEUR4OA Project
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● Frantsvag, J.E (2008) Open access in Norway – where are we, and where are we going? Sciecom Info, Vol. 4, 1. Open Access.
● Frantsvag, J.E (2010) The University of Tromso adopts an institutional open access policy. In ScieCom Info. Vol.6, 4. Open Access.
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● White Paper : Klima for forskning (Only in Norwegian)
● White paper : Lange linjer
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