With a population of about 173 million, Nigeria is one of the most populous countries in Africa. It has about 138 Universities (Federal, State and Private) (NUC, 2015) and many research institutions involved in various research works and scholarly publishing.
Nigeria has a very low percentage of its publications available on-line and in Open Access. As of 2021, In the Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR), Nigeria has only 14 globally visible repositories and in the Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ) thirty eight OA journals from Nigeria are indexed (out of 10547 indexed journals (as of 2021).
In January 2011, Covenant University adopted a policy that mandated all referred publications in journals, conferences and books to be deposited in the University repository. This applied to faculty and post-graduate students alike. SHERPA/JULIET lists zero research funders' OA policies from Nigeria.
Researchers from Nigeria publish articles in international Open Access journals, for example 465 articles have been published with BioMed Central – an STM (Science, Technology and Medicine) publisher which has pioneered the Open Access publishing model. 119 articles have been published in Public Library of Science (PLoS) Open Access journals: PLoS ONE, PLoS Medicine, PLoS Genetics, PLoS Computational Biology and PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases.
The development in Nigerian National Information infrastructure through the deregulation of the telecommunications industry and formulation policies such as information technology and telecommunication policies by the Federal Government of Nigeria has led to the issuance of licenses for fixed wireless networks, internet services, VSAT (Very Small Aperture Satellite System) and telecommunication equipment services. This has made computer and internet facilities particularly affordable and accessible to a greater population of the country.
According to the Internet world statistics (2014) the Internet usage in Nigeria has grown from 200,000 users in the year 2000 to about 70 million users as of June 2014. This implies that the current internet penetration (% of Nigerian population) is 39.7%.
The first International Workshop on Open Access (OA) Repositories: New Models For Scholarly Communication was organized on 28th - 29th April, 2008 at Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), Zaria. 89 participants – policy makers and ICT experts from university and research institutes, scholars and researchers, editors-in-chief of peer reviewed scientific and scholarly journals, university and systems librarians – from 45 institutions met to discuss the importance of OA initiatives to academia and society at large; the strategies for formulating appropriate policy for implementing and sustaining OA institutional repositories; copyright issues and open content licenses; strategies for the promotion and marketing of institutional repositories. A Communiqué issued after the workshop endorsed the OA model and made a set of recommendations for government and stakeholders. ABU also hosted a follow-up event – the Second OA Initiative Workshop 2009: Maximising Research Quality and Impact, that took place on 2nd – 4th November, 2009 to report about the OA developments in the country and coordinate the activities. These knowledge-sharing events were co-organized by the Department of Library and Information Science at ABU, EIFL and the Nigerian University Libraries Consortium (NULIB) and facilitated by Ezra Shiloba Gbaje (Ph.D)s.
The key outputs from these initiatives led to advocacy for universities to develop OA policies and for Nigerian researchers to embrace OA.
The potential barriers to Open Access in Nigeria include:
● Low level of awareness of the potentials of Open Access amongst researchers and scholars, librarians, publishers/editors of scholarly journals and policy makers.
● Low level of awareness of the potentials of Open Access amongst organizations that sponsor research activities in Nigeria.
● Limited support from institution's leadership.
● Shortage of information and communication skilled professionals that can deploy and maintain Open Access repositories and journals.
● Intellectual Property Issues: Concerns of scholars and researchers of plagiarism.
● Copyright restrictions.
● Some researchers do not want to self-archive because of the fear of litigation from the journal publishers.
● Lack of national policy on Open Access.
● Limited follow-up activities and advocacy to drive sustainability of initiatives.
Poor visibility of Nigerian scholarship and low impact of research outputs are major challenges Open Access advocates in the country are trying to tackle.
National and Institutional Level Policies/Mandates
There is currently no national Open Access policy in Nigeria. However it is important to note that some universities have their own established Open Access policies. One of the examples is Covenant University Open Access policy (adopted in January 2011) that mandated all referred publications in journals, conferences and books to be deposited in the University repository. This applied to faculty and post-graduate students alike. The University of Port Harcourt expressed their wish to join the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities.
Department of Library and Information Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria: Open Access promotion (see above), publications of Open Access journals (see above). Contacts: Zakari Mohammed FNLA,FNIM, Professor, Tel.: 234-8037039624, zakmoh2000(at)yahoo.com; and Ezra Shiloba Gbaje, Tel.: 234-8069518804, Shiloba(at)yahoo.com.
Academic journals publish 100+ Open Access journals. Some of these journals (e.g. African Journal of Agricultural Research, African Journal of Biochemistry Research, African Journal of Business Management, African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, International NGO Journal and Scientific Research and Essays) are indexed in DOAJ. Contact: 73023 Victoria Island, Lagos, service(at)academicjournals.org.
Events and Programs
In an effort to promote Open Access initiative, in 2008 ABU Department of Library and Information Science organized a 2-day workshop in collaboration with EIFL on “Open Access Repositories: New Model for Scholarly Communication” and a follow-up workshop in November 2009 with the theme “Open Access: Maximizing Research Quality and Impact”. These workshops were facilitate by Ezra Shiloba Gbaje(Ph.D)s, EIFL Open Access country coordinators nominated by Nigerian University Libraries Consortium (NULIB CONSULTS NIG. LTD). As a result of this workshop two institutions: University of Jos and Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria have deployed their institutional repositories (University of Jos institutional repository, Ahmadu Bello University’s institutional repository is only accessible through the university intranet for now). The Department converted its two journals from toll access journals to OA: The Samaru Journal of Information Studies and The Information Manager.
Other Non-governmental organization involved in Open Access advocacy in Nigeria, include the British Medical Journal West Africa Edition who organised the First Open Access to Health Information Seminar facilitated by Dr Joseph Ana.
Since these workshops, fifteen open access repositories are listed in the Directory of Open Access Repositories (OpenDOAR) and ten OA repositories in the Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR). These include DSpace at University of Jos, University of Nigeria Nsukka repository and Covenant University Repository.
The deployment of institutional repository has brought the University of Jos Library to prominence to the world community. Presently, any work deposited in the institutional repository is captured immediately by Google and can be searched through the search engine. Respect as well as support has come to the library. Librarians are challenged to lead faculty in the new migration to the digital world. It has been a journey well thought of, a path well taken, a result most fulfilling, an excitement worth celebrating, and a project worth sharing.
Thirty eight OA journals published in Nigeria are indexed in the Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ). Among them African Journal of Reproductive Health – a multidisciplinary international journal published tri-annually by the Women's Health and Action Research Centre, The Annals of African Medicine published by the Annals of African Medicine Society and The Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research published by Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, among many others.
Five OA journals published in Nigeria are indexed in the Directory of Open Access Scholarly Resources (ROAD).
Ahmadu Bello University Press, Federal College of Education Akoka, Forestry Association of Nigeria, Science Education Development Institute, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Usmanu Danfodiyo University (Sokoto) and Wilolud Journals have signed the Budapest Open Access Initiative – a major declaration in support of Open Access.
Open Access Nigeria is a community of open access ambassadors advocating an end to pay walls so the public can have free and open access to the results of peer-reviewed scholarly research. This non-profit organization seeks to promote open access principles in Nigeria and to encourage research activity, especially amongst students. Open Access Nigeria advocates and facilitates internet access in public and university libraries in furtherance of Open Access, Open Education and Open Data.
The Sustenance of Library and Information Science (LIS) Journals in West Africa: University of Ibadan, Nigeria, July 2013. This workshop was developed in partnership with the African Journal of Library, Archives and Information Science.
● Emojorho, D., Oghenetega Ivwighregweta & Onoriode, K. O. (1 April, 2012) "Awareness of Open Access Scholarly Publication Among Lecturers in University of Benin, Benin City in Edo State, Nigeria"; published in Journal of Research in Education and Society; Volume 3, Number 1.
● 2012: "Open Access Publishing in SA and Nigeria" By Helen Chuma-Okoro posted on www.openair.org
● 2012: Open Access and Scholarly Publishing: "Opportunities and Challenges to Nigerian Researchers" by Oghenetega Ivwighreghweta et. al. This study examined the extent of researchers' appreciation of open access scholarly publishing. It discussed the opportunities and the benefits of open access to scholars worldwide. Challenges of OA were discussed and solutions suggested. Four research questions were raised. The population of this study was 140 lecturers from the University of Benin, Nigeria.
● 2011: "Open Access, Institutional Repositories, and Scholarly Publishing: The Role of Librarians in South Eastern Nigeria" by M.O Okoye & A.N Ejikeme. This study found that while 88.89% respondents to the study were aware of open access journals and their advantages, only 13.33% have published articles on open access journals.
● 2009: "Open Access Initiatives Adoption by Nigerian Academics" by Samuel C. Avemaria Utulu and Omolora Bolarinwa. This paper examines Nigerian academics' adoption of open access initiatives. The study was necessitated by the growing need to have the number of Nigerian scholarly publications increased on the internet and accessible to scholars around the world thorough the use of open access initiatives.
● "Open Access, Adult Education and Development in Nigeria" by Olutoyin Mejiuni.
● Adesina, E., O. Odiboh, O. Oyero, B. Adeyeye, D. Yartey, and T. Ekanem. 2018. “Publishing African Communication Researches in Open Access Outlets: An Interrogation of Scopus between 1996-2016.” Pp. 6340–45 in Proceedings of the 31st International Business Information Management Association Conference, IBIMA 2018: Innovation Management and Education Excellence through Vision 2020.
● Ango, A. A. 2019. “Effects of Academic Staff Competence and Internet Services on the Use of Open Access Journals in Federal Universities in North Central Nigeria.” Library Philosophy and Practice 2019.
● Anunobi, C. V., and R. Ape. 2018. “Promotional Strategies for Open Access Resources Discovery and Access.” Webology 15(1):30–45.
● Anyira, I. E., and I. Idubor. 2020. “Open Access Resources: Option for Libraries in a Challenged Economy.” Library Philosophy and Practice 2020:1–16.
● Atayero, A. A., S. I. Popoola, J. Egeonu, and O. Oludayo. 2018. “Citation Analytics: Data Exploration and Comparative Analyses of CiteScores of Open Access and Subscription-Based Publications Indexed in Scopus (2014–2016).” Data in Brief 19:198–213. doi: 10.1016/j.dib.2018.05.005.
● Ayeni, P. O. 2017. “Perceptions and Use of Open Access Journals by Nigerian Postgraduate Students.” Journal of Information Science Theory and Practice 5(1):26–46. doi: 10.1633/JISTaP.2017.5.1.3.
● Ayeni, P. O., and N. Adetoro. 2017. “Growth of Predatory Open Access Journals: Implication for Quality Assurance in Library and Information Science Research.” Library Hi Tech News 34(1):17–22. doi: 10.1108/LHTN-10-2016-0046.
● Baro, E. E., and M. E. Eze. 2017. “Perceptions, Preferences of Scholarly Publishing in Open Access Routes: A Survey of Academic Librarians in Nigeria.” Information and Learning Science 118(3–4):1–29. doi: 10.1108/ILS-03-2017-0015.
● Bolarinwa, O., and S. C. A. Utulu. 2011. “Open Access: Perceptions and Reactions of Academic Librarians in Nigerian Private Universities.” African Journal of Library Archives and Information Science 21(2):127–37.
● Bosah, G., C. C. Okeji, and E. E. Baro. 2017. “Perceptions, Preferences of Scholarly Publishing in Open Access Journals: A Survey of Academic Librarians in Africa.” Digital Library Perspectives 33(4):378–94. doi: 10.1108/DLP-03-2017-0011.
● Chigbu, E. D., E. O. Njoku, and N. Uzoagba. 2016. “Management and Usage of Open Access Scholarly Online Resources in University Libraries in Nigeria Librarians’ Viewpoints.” Electronic Library 34(6):974–84. doi: 10.1108/EL-08-2015-0140.
● Dennis, A. D. 2007. “The Impact of the Open Access Movement on Medical Based Scholarly Publishing in Nigeria.” First Monday 12(10). doi: 10.5210/fm.v12i10.1957.
● Egbe, A. O., and E. Okeoma Chinelo. 2020. “AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF OPEN ACCESS INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORIES IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES.” Library Philosophy and Practice 2020.
● Ejikeme, A. N., and I. J. Ezema. 2019. “The Potentials of Open Access Initiative and the Development of Institutional Repositories in Nigeria: Implications for Scholarly Communication.” Publishing Research Quarterly 35(1):6–21. doi: 10.1007/s12109-018-09626-4.
● Ekeu-Wei, I. T., and G. A. Blackburn. 2020. “Catchment-Scale Flood Modelling in Data-Sparse Regions Using Open-Access Geospatial Technology.” ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 9(9). doi: 10.3390/ijgi9090512.
● Ezema, I. J. 2011. “Building Open Access Institutional Repositories for Global Visibility of Nigerian Scholarly Publication.” Library Review 60(6):473–85. doi: 10.1108/00242531111147198.
● Ezema, I. J. 2013. “Local Contents and the Development of Open Access Institutional Repositories in Nigeria University Libraries: Challenges, Strategies and Scholarly Implications.” Library Hi Tech 31(2):323–40. doi: 10.1108/07378831311329086.
● Ezema, I. J. 2020. “Gold Route Open Access Journals in Engineering and Technology: Analysis of Research Impact and Implications for Scholarly Communication.” Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship 2020(96):1–25. doi: 10.29173/istl43.
● Ezema, I. J., and V. N. Okafor. 2015. “Open Access Institutional Repositories in Nigeria Academic Libraries: Advocacy and Issues in Scholarly Communication.” Library Collections, Acquisition and Technical Services 39(3–4):45–58. doi: 10.1080/14649055.2016.1176842.
● Ezema, I. J., and O. B. Onyancha. 2017. “Open Access Publishing in Africa: Advancing Research Outputs to Global Visibility.” African Journal of Library Archives and Information Science 27(2):97–115.
● Ezinwa Nwagwu, W., and O. Ojemeni. 2015. “Penetration of Nigerian Predatory Biomedical Open Access Journals 2007–2012: A Bibiliometric Study.” Learned Publishing 28(1):23–34. doi: 10.1087/20150105.
● Hürlimann, E., N. Schur, K. Boutsika, A. S. Stensgaard, M. L. de Himpsl, K. Ziegelbauer, N. Laizer, L. Camenzind, A. Pasquale, U. F. Ekpo, C. Simoonga, G. Mushinge, C. F. L. Saarnak, J. Utzinger, T. K. Kristensen, and P. Vounatsou. 2011. “Toward an Open-Access Global Database for Mapping, Control, and Surveillance of Neglected Tropical Diseases.” PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 5(12). doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001404.
● Igwe, K. N. 2014. “Open Access Repositories in Academic and Research Institutions for the Realization of Nigeria’s Vision 20: 2020.” International Journal of Information Science and Management 12(1):33–46.
● Irivwieri, J. W. 2009. “Research into Open Access Science Publishing.” Library Hi Tech News 26(3–4):16–18. doi: 10.1108/07419050910979964.
● Ivwighreghweta, O., and O. K. Onoriode. 2012a. “Awareness and Use of Open Access Journals by LIS Students at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria.” Library Philosophy and Practice 2012(APR).
● Ivwighreghweta, O., and O. K. Onoriode. 2012b. “Use of Open Access Journals by Lecturers at Western Delta University, Oghara, Nigeria.” Library Philosophy and Practice 2012(MAY).
● Juwah, E. 2011. “Nigerian Communications Commission Delivering Broadband for Development in Nigeria: The Open Access Model.” ITU News (5):25–29.
● Nwagwu, W. E. 2013. “Open Access Initiatives in Africa - Structure, Incentives and Disincentives.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 39(1):3–10. doi: 10.1016/j.acalib.2012.11.024.
● Nwagwu, W. E. 2018. “Knowledge Production Ethos and Open Access Publishing: Africa in Focus [L’éthos de La Production de Connaissances et l’édition En Livre Accès: Regard Sur l’Afrique].” Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science 42(3–4):249–77.
● Nwagwu, W. E., and A. Ahmed. 2009. “Building Open Access in Africa.” International Journal of Technology Management 45(1–2):82–101. doi: 10.1504/ijtm.2009.021521.
● Obuh, A. O. 2013. “Attitude towards the Use of Open Access Scholarly Publications: The Position of LIS Lecturers in Southern Nigeria.” Social Sciences (Pakistan) 8(2):153–59. doi: 10.3923/sscience.2013.106.159.
● Okoye, M. O., and A. N. Ejikeme. 2011. “Open Access, Institutional Repositories, and Scholarly Publishing: The Role of Librarians in South Eastern Nigeria.” Library Philosophy and Practice 2011(FEBRUARY).
● Oladapo, Y. O. 2017. Open Access to Knowledge and Challenges in Digital Libraries.
● Omonhinmin, C. A., E. Agbaike, and A. A. Atayero. 2015. “Implementing Open Access in a Private Nigerian University: A Case Study of Covenant University.” in 2014 International Conference on Web and Open Access to Learning, ICWOAL 2014.
● Omonhinmin, C. A., O. E. Omotosho, A. Akomolafe, and A. A. Atayero. 2015. “Policy for Development and Use of Open Educational Resources in Covenant University: An Open Access Policy in Covenant University.” in 2014 International Conference on Web and Open Access to Learning, ICWOAL 2014.
● Rey, J. M., and O. O. Omigbodun. 2015. “International Dissemination of Evidence-Based Practice, Open Access and the IACAPAP Textbook of Child and Adolescent Mental Health.” Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 9(1). doi: 10.1186/s13034-015-0084-1.
● Tambo, E., G. Madjou, C. Khayeka-Wandabwa, E. N. Tekwu, O. A. Olalubi, N. Midzi, L. Bengyella, A. A. Adedeji, and J. Y. Ngogang. 2016. “Can Free Open Access Resources Strengthen Knowledge-Based Emerging Public Health Priorities, Policies and Programs in Africa? [Version 1; Referees: 2 Approved].” F1000Research 5. doi: 10.12688/F1000RESEARCH.8662.1.
● Ukwoma, S., and C. O. Onyebinama. 2020. “Access and Use of Open Access Resources by Undergraduate Students in Federal Universities in South East Nigeria.” Library Philosophy and Practice 2020:1–12.
● Umar, M. A. 2016. “An Appraisal of Open Access Utilization among Academic Librarians in Federal Universities in Northwestern States of Nigeria.” Library Philosophy and Practice 2016(1).
● Utulu, S. C. A., and O. Bolarinwa. 2009. “Open Access Initiatives Adoption by Nigerian Academics.” Library Review 58(9):660–69. doi: 10.1108/00242530910997946.
● Uzuegbu, C. P., and F. U. McAlbert. 2012. “Digital Librarians and the Challenges of Open Access to Knowledge: The Michael Okpara University of Agriculture (MOUAU) Library Experience.” Library Philosophy and Practice 2012(MAY).
● Wiwanitkit, V., and S. Qu. 2014. “Open Access Publication, Journal Policy, and Scientific Community.” American Journal of Medicine 127(5). doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2013.12.025.
● Yusuf, F., and S. E. Owolabi. 2017. Open Access to Knowledge and Challenges in Digital Libraries: Nigeria’s Peculiarity.