New Zealand


At present, most of New Zealand’s publicly funded research is not freely accessible and require citizens to pay a fee to access research funded by a taxpayer. However, this situation is quickly changing as, across the world, public funding bodies are insisting that all funded research be made freely available in order to increase public engagement, maximize innovation and accelerate the production of new knowledge.As of March 2021, there are 19 OA journals published in New Zealand which are indexed in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) and 168 OA journals which are indexed in the Directory of Open Access Scholarly Resources (ROAD). Furthermore, a total of 18 OA repositories are indexed in the Directory of Open Access Repositories (OpenDOAR).

Enabling Environment

OA policies and mandates

Although the New Zealand Government has not announced a position on Open Access to scholarly research, a growing number of institutions have policies encouraging or mandating Open Access publication including the University of Waikato (Open Access Mandate passed in March 2014) and Lincoln University (Open Access mandate passed in 2013). There are currently 06 OA policies registered in the Registry of Open Access Repository Mandates and Policies (ROARMAP).

Creative Commons licences are being used to make scientific data freely available, especially in the public sector. On 22 May 2014, the National Library of New Zealand released its Policy for Use and Reuse of Collection Items. This policy was a timely move towards Openness that is underpinned by the New Zealand Government’s Open Access and Licensing Framework.

Even without OA policies and mandates, a growing number of New Zealand researchers are found to choose to publish in Open Access journals or deposit in OA institutional repositories.

Additionally, contracts for the Marsden Fund, New Zealand’s fundamental research fund, include a clause mandating that researchers share their research data, meta-data and samples collected within 12 months of completion of the project.


Events and Programs

Other OA related activities:

     Getting out in the open: challenges & opportunities of publishing in OA journals

         October 26, 2016 from 12:30pm to 1:30pm – New Zealand

         Organized by Anna Matich | Type: panel, discussion


     Tuwhera launch

         October 19, 2016 from 5pm to 7pm – New Zealand

         Organized by Luqman Hayes | Type: launch, event


     Open Access Week in New Zealand: How to do Guerilla GLAM (webinar)

         October 20, 2015 all day – New Zealand

         Organized by University of Otago | Type: webinar



     Alamri, Y., and A. Abu-Zaid. 2019. “Equipping Junior Authors Against Predatory Open-Access Journals.” Academic Medicine 94(10):1405. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000002873.

     Allen, R., W. Bayliff, J. Joseph, and D. Squires. 2010. The Benefits and Costs of Transformation of Open Access on the High Seas.

     Armstrong, C. W., N. S. Foley, and V. Kahui. 2016. “A Production Function Analysis of Fisheries and Habitat: Open Access versus Optimal Management.” Land Economics 92(4):760–71. doi: 10.3368/le.92.4.760.

     Costello, M. J., W. Appeltans, N. Bailly, W. G. Berendsohn, Y. De Jong, M. Edwards, R. Froese, F. Huettmann, W. Los, J. Mees, H. Segers, and F. A. Bisby. 2014. “Strategies for the Sustainability of Online Open-Access Biodiversity Databases.” Biological Conservation 173:155–65. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2013.07.042.

     Crowe, M., and D. Carlyle. 2015. “Is Open Access Sufficient? A Review of the Quality of Open-Access Nursing Journals.” International Journal of Mental Health Nursing 24(1):59–64. doi: 10.1111/inm.12098.

     Cullen, R., and B. Chawner. 2011. “Institutional Repositories, Open Access, and Scholarly Communication: A Study of Conflicting Paradigms.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 37(6):460–70. doi: 10.1016/j.acalib.2011.07.002.

     Cumin, D., V. Newton-Wade, M. J. Harrison, and A. F. Merry. 2013. “Two Open Access, High-Quality Datasets from Anesthetic Records.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 20(1):180–83. doi: 10.1136/amiajnl-2012-001087.

     Derraik, J. G. B. 2008. “Open Access Journals and a Case of Phytophotodermatitis.” New Zealand Medical Journal 121(1285).

     Dmochowski, P. A., P. J. Smith, and M. Shafi. 2012. “Capacity Analysis for Closed and Open Access Femto Cell Networks.” Pp. 1722–27 in IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC.

     Drummond, M., and C. D. Mullins. 2016. “Open Access Publication in Value in Health.” Value in Health 19(4):297. doi: 10.1016/j.jval.2016.04.005.

     Gladding, P. A., A. Cave, M. Zareian, K. Smith, J. Hussan, P. Hunter, F. Erogbogbo, Z. Aguilar, D. S. Martin, E. Chan, M. L. Homer, A. V. Shevade, M. Kassemi, J. D. Thomas, and T. T. Schlegel. 2013. “Open Access Integrated Therapeutic and Diagnostic Platforms for Personalized Cardiovascular Medicine.” Journal of Personalized Medicine 3(3):203–37. doi: 10.3390/jpm3030203.

     Hackney, M., A. James, and M. J. Plank. 2019. “Emergence of Balanced Harvesting in an Agent-Based Model of an Open-Access Small-Scale Fishery.” Mathematical Biosciences 316. doi: 10.1016/j.mbs.2019.108245.

     Hamm, L. M., J. P. Yeoman, N. Anstice, and S. C. Dakin. 2018. “The Auckland Optotypes: An Open-Access Pictogram Set for Measuring Recognition Acuity.” Journal of Vision 18(3). doi: 10.1167/18.3.13.

     Harland, T. 2012. “Higher Education as an Open-Access Discipline.” Higher Education Research and Development 31(5):703–10. doi: 10.1080/07294360.2012.689275.

     Harrison, W. T. A., J. Simpson, and M. Weil. 2009. “Structure Reports Online: Successful Transition to Open Access.” Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online 65(2):e9–10. doi: 10.1107/S1600536808042979.

     Hermann, A., R. Forkel, A. McAlister, A. Cruickshank, M. Golitko, B. Kneebone, M. McCoy, C. Reepmeyer, P. Sheppard, J. Sinton, and M. Weisler. 2020. “Pofatu, a Curated and Open-Access Database for Geochemical Sourcing of Archaeological Materials.” Scientific Data 7(1). doi: 10.1038/s41597-020-0485-8.

     Hill, T. 2015. “Identifying Legitimate Open Access Journals: Some Suggestions from a Publisher.” Learned Publishing 28(1):59–62. doi: 10.1087/20150109.

     Inglesfield, J. W., A. Davie, J. McMurray, H. Rimington, G. Adam, and J. Chambers. 1996. “Open-Access Echocardiography [12].” Lancet 348(9038):1386–87. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(05)65455-4.

     Kattge, J., G. Bönisch, S. Díaz, S. Lavorel, I. C. Prentice, P. Leadley, S. Tautenhahn, G. D. A. Werner, T. Aakala, M. Abedi, A. T. R. Acosta, G. C. Adamidis, K. Adamson, M. Aiba, C. H. Albert, J. M. Alcántara, C. Alcázar C, I. Aleixo, H. Ali, B. Amiaud, C. Ammer, M. M. Amoroso, M. Anand, C. Anderson, N. Anten, J. Antos, D. M. G. Apgaua, T. L. Ashman, D. H. Asmara, G. P. Asner, M. Aspinwall, O. Atkin, I. Aubin, L. Baastrup-Spohr, K. Bahalkeh, M. Bahn, T. Baker, W. J. Baker, J. P. Bakker, D. Baldocchi, J. Baltzer, A. Banerjee, A. Baranger, J. Barlow, D. R. Barneche, Z. Baruch, D. Bastianelli, J. Battles, W. Bauerle, M. Bauters, E. Bazzato, M. Beckmann, H. Beeckman, C. Beierkuhnlein, R. Bekker, G. Belfry, M. Belluau, M. Beloiu, R. Benavides, L. Benomar, M. L. Berdugo-Lattke, E. Berenguer, R. Bergamin, J. Bergmann, M. Bergmann Carlucci, L. Berner, M. Bernhardt-Römermann, C. Bigler, A. D. Bjorkman, C. Blackman, C. Blanco, B. Blonder, D. Blumenthal, K. T. Bocanegra-González, P. Boeckx, S. Bohlman, K. Böhning-Gaese, L. Boisvert-Marsh, W. Bond, B. Bond-Lamberty, A. Boom, C. C. F. Boonman, K. Bordin, E. H. Boughton, V. Boukili, D. M. J. S. Bowman, S. Bravo, M. R. Brendel, M. R. Broadley, K. A. Brown, H. Bruelheide, F. Brumnich, H. H. Bruun, D. Bruy, S. W. Buchanan, S. F. Bucher, N. Buchmann, R. Buitenwerf, D. E. Bunker, J. Bürger, S. Burrascano, D. F. R. P. Burslem, B. J. Butterfield, C. Byun, M. Marques, M. C. Scalon, M. Caccianiga, M. Cadotte, M. Cailleret, J. Camac, J. J. Camarero, C. Campany, G. Campetella, J. A. Campos, L. Cano-Arboleda, R. Canullo, M. Carbognani, F. Carvalho, F. Casanoves, B. Castagneyrol, J. A. Catford, J. Cavender-Bares, B. E. L. Cerabolini, M. Cervellini, E. Chacón-Madrigal, K. Chapin, F. S. Chapin, S. Chelli, S. C. Chen, A. Chen, P. Cherubini, F. Chianucci, B. Choat, K. S. Chung, M. Chytrý, D. Ciccarelli, L. Coll, C. G. Collins, L. Conti, D. Coomes, J. H. C. Cornelissen, W. K. Cornwell, P. Corona, M. Coyea, J. Craine, D. Craven, J. P. G. M. Cromsigt, A. Csecserits, K. Cufar, M. Cuntz, A. C. da Silva, K. M. Dahlin, M. Dainese, I. Dalke, M. Dalle Fratte, A. T. Dang-Le, J. Danihelka, M. Dannoura, S. Dawson, A. J. de Beer, A. De Frutos, J. R. De Long, B. Dechant, S. Delagrange, N. Delpierre, G. Derroire, A. S. Dias, M. H. Diaz-Toribio, P. G. Dimitrakopoulos, M. Dobrowolski, D. Doktor, P. Dřevojan, N. Dong, J. Dransfield, S. Dressler, L. Duarte, E. Ducouret, S. Dullinger, W. Durka, R. Duursma, O. Dymova, A. E-Vojtkó, R. L. Eckstein, H. Ejtehadi, J. Elser, T. Emilio, K. Engemann, M. B. Erfanian, A. Erfmeier, A. Esquivel-Muelbert, G. Esser, M. Estiarte, T. F. Domingues, W. F. Fagan, J. Fagúndez, D. S. Falster, Y. Fan, J. Fang, E. Farris, F. Fazlioglu, Y. Feng, F. Fernandez-Mendez, C. Ferrara, J. Ferreira, A. Fidelis, B. Finegan, J. Firn, T. J. Flowers, D. F. B. Flynn, V. Fontana, E. Forey, C. Forgiarini, L. François, M. Frangipani, D. Frank, C. Frenette-Dussault, G. T. Freschet, E. L. Fry, N. M. Fyllas, G. G. Mazzochini, S. Gachet, R. Gallagher, G. Ganade, F. Ganga, P. García-Palacios, V. Gargaglione, E. Garnier, J. L. Garrido, A. L. de Gasper, G. Gea-Izquierdo, D. Gibson, A. N. Gillison, A. Giroldo, M. C. Glasenhardt, S. Gleason, M. Gliesch, E. Goldberg, B. Göldel, E. Gonzalez-Akre, J. L. Gonzalez-Andujar, A. González-Melo, A. González-Robles, B. J. Graae, E. Granda, S. Graves, W. A. Green, T. Gregor, N. Gross, G. R. Guerin, A. Günther, A. G. Gutiérrez, L. Haddock, A. Haines, J. Hall, A. Hambuckers, W. Han, S. P. Harrison, W. Hattingh, J. E. Hawes, T. He, P. He, J. M. Heberling, A. Helm, S. Hempel, J. Hentschel, B. Hérault, A. M. Hereş, K. Herz, M. Heuertz, T. Hickler, P. Hietz, P. Higuchi, A. L. Hipp, A. Hirons, M. Hock, J. A. Hogan, K. Holl, O. Honnay, D. Hornstein, E. Hou, N. Hough-Snee, K. A. Hovstad, T. Ichie, B. Igić, E. Illa, M. Isaac, M. Ishihara, L. Ivanov, L. Ivanova, C. M. Iversen, J. Izquierdo, R. B. Jackson, B. Jackson, H. Jactel, A. M. Jagodzinski, U. Jandt, S. Jansen, T. Jenkins, A. Jentsch, J. R. P. Jespersen, G. F. Jiang, J. L. Johansen, D. Johnson, E. J. Jokela, C. A. Joly, G. J. Jordan, G. S. Joseph, D. Junaedi, R. R. Junker, E. Justes, R. Kabzems, J. Kane, Z. Kaplan, T. Kattenborn, L. Kavelenova, E. Kearsley, A. Kempel, T. Kenzo, A. Kerkhoff, M. I. Khalil, N. L. Kinlock, W. D. Kissling, K. Kitajima, T. Kitzberger, R. Kjøller, T. Klein, M. Kleyer, J. Klimešová, J. Klipel, B. Kloeppel, S. Klotz, J. M. H. Knops, T. Kohyama, F. Koike, J. Kollmann, B. Komac, K. Komatsu, C. König, N. J. B. Kraft, K. Kramer, H. Kreft, I. Kühn, D. Kumarathunge, J. Kuppler, H. Kurokawa, Y. Kurosawa, S. Kuyah, J. P. Laclau, B. Lafleur, E. Lallai, E. Lamb, A. Lamprecht, D. J. Larkin, D. Laughlin, Y. Le Bagousse-Pinguet, G. le Maire, P. C. le Roux, E. le Roux, T. Lee, F. Lens, S. L. Lewis, B. Lhotsky, Y. Li, X. Li, J. W. Lichstein, M. Liebergesell, J. Y. Lim, Y. S. Lin, J. C. Linares, C. Liu, D. Liu, U. Liu, S. Livingstone, J. Llusià, M. Lohbeck, Á. López-García, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, Z. Lososová, F. Louault, B. A. Lukács, P. Lukeš, Y. Luo, M. Lussu, S. Ma, C. Maciel Rabelo Pereira, M. Mack, V. Maire, A. Mäkelä, H. Mäkinen, A. C. M. Malhado, A. Mallik, P. Manning, S. Manzoni, Z. Marchetti, L. Marchino, V. Marcilio-Silva, E. Marcon, M. Marignani, L. Markesteijn, A. Martin, C. Martínez-Garza, J. Martínez-Vilalta, T. Mašková, K. Mason, N. Mason, T. J. Massad, J. Masse, I. Mayrose, J. McCarthy, M. L. McCormack, K. McCulloh, I. R. McFadden, B. J. McGill, M. Y. McPartland, J. S. Medeiros, B. Medlyn, P. Meerts, Z. Mehrabi, P. Meir, F. P. L. Melo, M. Mencuccini, C. Meredieu, J. Messier, I. Mészáros, J. Metsaranta, S. T. Michaletz, C. Michelaki, S. Migalina, R. Milla, J. E. D. Miller, V. Minden, R. Ming, K. Mokany, A. T. Moles, A. Molnár, J. Molofsky, M. Molz, R. A. Montgomery, A. Monty, L. Moravcová, A. Moreno-Martínez, M. Moretti, A. S. Mori, S. Mori, D. Morris, J. Morrison, L. Mucina, S. Mueller, C. D. Muir, S. C. Müller, F. Munoz, I. H. Myers-Smith, R. W. Myster, M. Nagano, S. Naidu, A. Narayanan, B. Natesan, L. Negoita, A. S. Nelson, E. L. Neuschulz, J. Ni, G. Niedrist, J. Nieto, Ü. Niinemets, R. Nolan, H. Nottebrock, Y. Nouvellon, A. Novakovskiy, K. O. Nystuen, A. O’Grady, K. O’Hara, A. O’Reilly-Nugent, S. Oakley, W. Oberhuber, T. Ohtsuka, R. Oliveira, K. Öllerer, M. E. Olson, V. Onipchenko, Y. Onoda, R. E. Onstein, J. C. Ordonez, N. Osada, I. Ostonen, G. Ottaviani, S. Otto, G. E. Overbeck, W. A. Ozinga, A. T. Pahl, C. E. T. Paine, R. J. Pakeman, A. C. Papageorgiou, E. Parfionova, M. Pärtel, M. Patacca, S. Paula, J. Paule, H. Pauli, J. G. Pausas, B. Peco, J. Penuelas, A. Perea, P. L. Peri, A. C. Petisco-Souza, A. Petraglia, A. M. Petritan, O. L. Phillips, S. Pierce, V. D. Pillar, J. Pisek, A. Pomogaybin, H. Poorter, A. Portsmuth, P. Poschlod, C. Potvin, D. Pounds, A. S. Powell, S. A. Power, A. Prinzing, G. Puglielli, P. Pyšek, V. Raevel, A. Rammig, J. Ransijn, C. A. Ray, P. B. Reich, M. Reichstein, D. E. B. Reid, M. Réjou-Méchain, V. R. de Dios, S. Ribeiro, S. Richardson, K. Riibak, M. C. Rillig, F. Riviera, E. M. R. Robert, S. Roberts, B. Robroek, A. Roddy, A. V. Rodrigues, A. Rogers, E. Rollinson, V. Rolo, C. Römermann, D. Ronzhina, C. Roscher, J. A. Rosell, M. F. Rosenfield, C. Rossi, D. B. Roy, S. Royer-Tardif, N. Rüger, R. Ruiz-Peinado, S. B. Rumpf, G. M. Rusch, M. Ryo, L. Sack, A. Saldaña, B. Salgado-Negret, R. Salguero-Gomez, I. Santa-Regina, A. C. Santacruz-García, J. Santos, J. Sardans, B. Schamp, M. Scherer-Lorenzen, M. Schleuning, B. Schmid, M. Schmidt, S. Schmitt, J. V. Schneider, S. D. Schowanek, J. Schrader, F. Schrodt, B. Schuldt, F. Schurr, G. Selaya Garvizu, M. Semchenko, C. Seymour, J. C. Sfair, J. M. Sharpe, C. S. Sheppard, S. Sheremetiev, S. Shiodera, B. Shipley, T. A. Shovon, A. Siebenkäs, C. Sierra, V. Silva, M. Silva, T. Sitzia, H. Sjöman, M. Slot, N. G. Smith, D. Sodhi, P. Soltis, D. Soltis, B. Somers, G. Sonnier, M. V. Sørensen, E. E. Sosinski, N. A. Soudzilovskaia, A. F. Souza, M. Spasojevic, M. G. Sperandii, A. B. Stan, J. Stegen, K. Steinbauer, J. G. Stephan, F. Sterck, D. B. Stojanovic, T. Strydom, M. L. Suarez, J. C. Svenning, I. Svitková, M. Svitok, M. Svoboda, E. Swaine, N. Swenson, M. Tabarelli, K. Takagi, U. Tappeiner, R. Tarifa, S. Tauugourdeau, C. Tavsanoglu, M. te Beest, L. Tedersoo, N. Thiffault, D. Thom, E. Thomas, K. Thompson, P. E. Thornton, W. Thuiller, L. Tichý, D. Tissue, M. G. Tjoelker, D. Y. P. Tng, J. Tobias, P. Török, T. Tarin, J. M. Torres-Ruiz, B. Tóthmérész, M. Treurnicht, V. Trivellone, F. Trolliet, V. Trotsiuk, J. L. Tsakalos, I. Tsiripidis, N. Tysklind, T. Umehara, V. Usoltsev, M. Vadeboncoeur, J. Vaezi, F. Valladares, J. Vamosi, P. M. van Bodegom, M. van Breugel, E. Van Cleemput, M. van de Weg, S. van der Merwe, F. van der Plas, M. T. van der Sande, M. van Kleunen, K. Van Meerbeek, M. Vanderwel, K. A. Vanselow, A. Vårhammar, L. Varone, M. Y. Vasquez Valderrama, K. Vassilev, M. Vellend, E. J. Veneklaas, H. Verbeeck, K. Verheyen, A. Vibrans, I. Vieira, J. Villacís, C. Violle, P. Vivek, K. Wagner, M. Waldram, A. Waldron, A. P. Walker, M. Waller, G. Walther, H. Wang, F. Wang, W. Wang, H. Watkins, J. Watkins, U. Weber, J. T. Weedon, L. Wei, P. Weigelt, E. Weiher, A. W. Wells, C. Wellstein, E. Wenk, M. Westoby, A. Westwood, P. J. White, M. Whitten, M. Williams, D. E. Winkler, K. Winter, C. Womack, I. J. Wright, S. J. Wright, J. Wright, B. X. Pinho, F. Ximenes, T. Yamada, K. Yamaji, R. Yanai, N. Yankov, B. Yguel, K. J. Zanini, A. E. Zanne, D. Zelený, Y. P. Zhao, J. Zheng, J. Zheng, K. Ziemińska, C. R. Zirbel, G. Zizka, I. C. Zo-Bi, G. Zotz, and C. Wirth. 2020. “TRY Plant Trait Database – Enhanced Coverage and Open Access.” Global Change Biology 26(1):119–88. doi: 10.1111/gcb.14904.

     Lynch, R. 2007. “National Journals of Aotearoa New Zealand - Open Access or Perish?” European Science Editing 33(4):105–6.

     Mueller-Langer, F., and R. Watt. 2018. “HOW MANY MORE CITES IS A $3,000 OPEN ACCESS FEE BUYING YOU? EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM A NATURAL EXPERIMENT.” Economic Inquiry 56(2):931–54. doi: 10.1111/ecin.12545.

     Siebers, R. 2011. “Open Access of the Journal.” New Zealand Journal of Medical Laboratory Science 65(1):4.

     Stanton, K. V., and C. L. Liew. 2011. “Risks, Benefits and Revelations: An Exploratory Study of Doctoral Students’ Perceptions of Open Access Theses in Institutional Repositories.” Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Including Subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) 7008 LNCS:182–91. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-24826-9_24.

     Stanton, K. V., and C. L. Liew. 2012. “Open Access Theses in Institutional Repositories: An Exploratory Study of the Perceptions of Doctoral Students.” Information Research 17(1).

     Williams, C. 2013. “Editorial: The Post-2015 Development Agenda, Human Rights, Evidence, and Open-Access Publishing.” Health and Human Rights 15(2):1–4.