In Italy, the Decree No.91 dated August 8, 2013 stated that the publication of results from researchers with public funds accounting for at least 50% should be stored electronically in free access free-of-charge repositories. At the same time, the Conference of Italian University Rectors (CRUI) have signed a position statement to encourage the creation of repositories. Between 2008 and 2018 the percentage of Open Access (OA) publications was roughly estimated to be about 40% over the total number of publications published by Italian institutions

As of March 2021, Italy has 141 OA digital repositories registered in OpenDOAR, most of which are institutional. Mappa Open Data (MOD) is the first Italian repository for Open Access publication of archaeological data. 421 OA journals indexed in DOAJ. Research is carried out in universities and research institutions and is mostly funded by the Ministry of Education, Universities and Research.

Enabling Environment

There is a strong information infrastructure in Italy; 34 institutions have a mandate for PhD theses deposition, while 2 have institutional mandates (LUISS, Italian National Health Institute - ISS).

ISS has a policy that states that: ‘All scientific works produced by ISS staff must be transmitted in electronic format (author’s final copy, after peer-review: “post-print”) to the Publishing Activities Unit of ISS, at the moment of acceptance for publication and is immediately available on the ISS Intranet. The metadata is also made available on the Internet, via DSpace ISS and, after the publisher embargo period has expired, the full texts will be made available.

Italy was represented by CNR Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research in the European project Recode (RECommendations for Open Access to Research Data) in Europe, aimed at analyzing benefits and issues of Open Access to data.

G8 Conference 2013-2017: Will provide capacity building support to develop and improve national agricultural and rural linked Open Data.

March 2014: Major regional repository infrastructure initiatives agree to align their activities and networks. Delegates identified several key elements that were to be addressed under the auspices of the Confederation of Open Access Repositories (COAR), an international alliance of repository initiatives. 

2013 onwards: Publishing of the inventory/catalogue of the agriculturally relevant data on website

Conference of Italian Universities Rectors (CRUI) established a Working Group on OA that has produced recommendations and guidelines on OA for research, repositories, research assessment, institutional repositories, and publications during the period 2007-2009. 71 universities and 2 research institutions are signatories of the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities.

Portal for the Italian Electronic Literature in Open and Institutional Archives (PLEIADI) provides information and promotes awareness of OA in the scholarly community from its website.

National and Institutional Level Policies/Mandates

After attending the EOSC launch in late 2018, the Italian ministry of research and university delegate formed a Commission of Experts, which included OpenAIRE Italian NOAD, to draught a National Roadmap for Open Science in 2019. The Roadmap was drafted in May 2019, but the Ministry of University and Research has yet to formally launch it. In 2019, the Ministry of University and Research established an Open Access Working Group.

From September 2019 the Ministry of Health is asking to publish the underlying data of publications produced with its fundings, in accordance with the Lancet Reward (REduce research Waste And Reward Diligence) Campaign.

As of March 2021, there are 28 Open Access Policies registered in ROARMAP, 3 of them being funders' OA mandates and rest OA policies from research organizations.

In September 2013, The "Open by Default" concept was introduced with the government decree named "Growth 2.0".

Telethon (Italian not-for-profit institution promoting research in muscular dystrophy and other genetic disorders): On July 22nd 2010 Telethon introduced its Open Access Policy. This applies to research papers resulting from new awards, as well as to existing grants. Telethon considers supporting unrestricted access to the published output of research a fundamental part of its mission. To this end, Telethon has joined the UK PubMed Central (UKPMC), a free-to-access digital archive of peer-reviewed biomedical and life sciences research. The full policy is available online.

Potential Barriers

There is no national OA mandate in Italy and not all institutions have adopted OA policies.

Key Organizations

CRUI working group on Open Access

Overview: Established in order to coordinate and promote activities on Open Access at a national and institutional level. Its main activities are related to drafting some guidelines related to recommendations for OA repositories and journals implementation, and for the deposition of PhD theses into OA repositories. It promotes the inclusion of an OA related clause in the current university bylaws. Communication address: e-mail: segreteriacrui(at)

Portal for the Italian Electronic Literature in Open and Institutional Archives (PLEIADI)

Overview: PLEIADI is a portal for Italian scholarly e-literature in open archives and institutional repositories) originated from the collaboration between two major Italian university consortia, CASPUR and CILEA, within the framework of the AEPIC project. The website offers information on OA, a platform for discussion and information exchange through an OA-wiki-Italia and coordination of the OA-Italia mailing list. Communication address: e-mail: pleiadi(at)

The ISS coordinates (2009-2012) the EU-funded project NECOBELAC, related to the field of public health. It aims to: improve scientific writing; promote open access publication models; and foster technical and scientific cooperation between Europe & Latin American Caribbean (LAC) countries.

Events and Programmes

  • 30 June 2020, Declining Open Science into specific disciplines. The webinar series for Earth and Environmental Sciences
  • Pop-up talk: Let's Open Access, 2020-10-22, Italy, Organized by Maria Bellantone, Type: live, panel, discussion, (online)
  • Beyond Open Access: SciPost, 2019-10-22, Italy, Organized by Asja Jelic and the Marie Curie Library (ICTP), Type: talk
  • Non per profitto: La scienza aperta e il ruolo dell'università/Not for profit: The role of Universities in Open Science, 2018-10-25, Italy, Organized by Facoltà di Giurisprudenza, Università di Trento, Type: conference
  • Ricerca scientifica, monopoli della conoscenza e Digital Humanities, 2018-10-24, Italy, Organized by Domenico Fiormonte, Type: convegno
  • Sapienza Open Access day – October 23, 2018, 2018-10-23, Italy, Organized by Sistema bibliotecario Sapienza - Sapienza Library System, Type: conference
  • Open Access Week @Politecnico di Torino, Italy, 2018-10-22, Italy, Organized by Politecnico di Torino, Type: conference, seminars
  • Open Science Data / Open Access Publishing @UniTrieste, 2017-10-27, Italy, Organized by University of Trieste, Type: seminar, workshop
  • EUI Open Access week: Open Access Roundtable: funding and metrics in the social sciences, 2017-10-27, Italy, Organized by Lotta Svantesson, Type: roundtable
  • BiblioVerifica: tools and search strategies against #fakeNews (Facebook barCamp), 2017-10-26, Italy, Organized by Damiano Orru, Type: presentation
  • OpenMed webinar: Open Education: The Moral, Business and Policy Case for OER, 2017-10-25, Italy, Organized by OpenMed project, Type: webinar
  • EUI Open Access week: Open Access Practical Session, 2017-10-25, Italy, Organized by Lotta Svantesson, Type: workshop
  • EUI Open Access week: Information desk Open Access and ORCID, 2017-10-23, Italy, Organized by Lotta Svantesson, Type: information, desk
  • 04 December 2016, Fair data management: best practices and open issues - 14-15 November, Florence, Italy
  • EUI Open Access week: Open Access Publishing in social sciences, 2016-10-27, Italy, Organized by , Type: roundtable
  • Open justice e open science: le esperienze di Juriswiki e OpenQuake, 2016-10-25, Italy, Organized by Elena Giglia, Type: conference
  • La proprietà intellettuale condivisa e gli archivi aperti, 2015-10-21, Italy, Organized by Coordinamento Servizi Bibliotecari Università di Sassari, Type: seminar
  • L’Open Access tra Repository ed Editoria: policies, copyright e valutazione, 2015-10-21, Italy, Organized by Commissione Open Access di Ateneo, Type: meeting
  • Immagini e testi online: il diritto d’autore alla prova del web, 2015-10-20, Italy, Organized by Elena Giglia, Type: seminar
  • EUI Open Access Roundtable: the revolution in publishing, 2015-10-20, Italy, Organized by Lotta Svantesson, Type: roundtable
  • Comunicare la produzione scientifica del Friuli Venezia Giulia: accesso aperto e cataloghi della ricerca, 2015-10-19, Italy, Organized by Cristina Cocever, Type: seminario
  • November 2014: The University of Messina in Sicily, Italy, held an event on the "Messina Declaration 2.0: the Italian road to Open Access". The main event goal was to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the Messina open Access Declaration issued in 2004.
  • 30 January 2014: Open Access: Priorities, Obstacles and Opportunities; Turin, Italy.
  • 27 February 2014: Second Conference OpenGeoData Italy; Rome, Italy. 


  • "A Roadmap for Open Access from Messina towards Europe: the New Italian Road to Open Access Launched at Messina" by Benedetta Alosi e Nunzio Femmino published in Bibliotime, XVII, Issue 3 (Nov 2014).
  • "Report on the Tenth Anniversary Open Access event in Messina" by Sara Valla and Benedetta Alosi released as a follow-up on the OA discussions held in Messina.
  • Alessandrini, M., B. Chakraborty, B. Heyde, O. Bernard, M. De Craene, M. Sermesant, and J. D’Hooge. 2018. “Realistic Vendor-Specific Synthetic Ultrasound Data for Quality Assurance of 2-D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography: Simulation Pipeline and Open Access Database.” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control 65(3):411–22. doi: 10.1109/TUFFC.2017.2786300.
  • Altamura, A. C., D. Armadoros, M. Jaeger, R. Kernish, J. Locklear, and H. P. Volz. 2008. “Importance of Open Access to Atypical Antipsychotics for the Treatment of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: A European Perspective.” Current Medical Research and Opinion 24(8):2271–82. doi: 10.1185/03007990802250056.
  • Antoci, A., M. Galeotti, and P. Russu. 2011. “Poverty Trap and Global Indeterminacy in a Growth Model with Open-Access Natural Resources.” Journal of Economic Theory 146(2):569–91. doi: 10.1016/j.jet.2010.12.003.
  • Ardito, A., P. Ricciardi, and A. Schiaffino. 1993. “The Effects of Seasonal Fluctuations on an Open Access Fishery Problem.” Journal of Mathematical Biology 31(8):879–90. doi: 10.1007/BF00168051.
  • Awouda, A., K. Aliev, P. Chiabert, and D. Antonelli. 2019. “Practical Implementation of Industry 4.0 Based on Open Access Tools and Technologies.” IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology 565 IFIP:94–103. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-42250-9_9.
  • Balkaya, C., F. Casciati, S. Casciati, L. Faravelli, and M. Vece. 2015. “Real-Time Identification of Disaster Areas by an Open-Access Vision-Based Tool.” Advances in Engineering Software 88:83–90. doi: 10.1016/j.advengsoft.2015.06.002.
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  • Bardi, U., and A. Lavacchi. 2011. “Welcome to Coatings: A New Open Access Journal.” Coatings 1(1):1–2. doi: 10.3390/coatings1010001.
  • Battiti, R., R. L. Cigno, M. Sabel, F. Orava, and B. Pehrson. 2005. “Wireless LANs: From Warchalking to Open Access Networks.” Mobile Networks and Applications 10(3):275–87. doi: 10.1007/s11036-005-6422-4.
  • Battiti, R., R. Lo Cigno, F. Orava, and B. Pehrson. 2003. “Global Growth of Open Access Networks: From WarChalking and Connection Sharing to Sustainable Business.” Pp. 19–28 in Proceedings of the first ACM International Workshop on Wireless Mobile Applications and Services on WLAN Hotspots.
  • Bautista-Puig, N., C. Lopez-Illescas, F. de Moya-Anegon, V. Guerrero-Bote, and H. F. Moed. 2020. “Do Journals Flipping to Gold Open Access Show an OA Citation or Publication Advantage?” Scientometrics 124(3):2551–75. doi: 10.1007/s11192-020-03546-x.
  • Bell, S. C., C. Castellani, and P. A. Flume. 2019. “Disruption in Research Publishing – the Open Access Revolution.” Journal of Cystic Fibrosis 18(6):747–49. doi: 10.1016/j.jcf.2019.10.024.
  • Bellini, E., and P. Nesi. 2013. “Metadata Quality Assessment Tool for Open Access Cultural Heritage Institutional Repositories.” Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Including Subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) 7990 LNCS:90–103. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-40050-6_9.
  • Bergantino, A. S., C. Capozza, and M. Capurso. 2015. “The Impact of Open Access on Intra- and Inter-Modal Rail Competition. A National Level Analysis in Italy.” Transport Policy 39:77–86. doi: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2015.01.008.
  • Beria, P., R. Redondi, and P. Malighetti. 2016. “The Effect of Open Access Competition on Average Rail Prices. The Case of Milan – Ancona.” Journal of Rail Transport Planning and Management 6(3):271–83. doi: 10.1016/j.jrtpm.2016.09.001.
  • Berrios, D. C., A. Beheshti, and S. V. Costes. 2018. “FAIRness and Usability for Open-Access Omics Data Systems.” AMIA ... Annual Symposium Proceedings. AMIA Symposium 2018:232–41.
  • Bersani, G., A. Rossi, G. Ricci, V. Pollino, G. DeFabritiis, A. Suzzi, and V. Alvisi. 2005. “Do ASGE Guidelines for the Appropriate Use of Colonoscopy Enhance the Probability of Finding Relevant Pathologies in an Open Access Service?” Digestive and Liver Disease 37(8):609–14. doi: 10.1016/j.dld.2005.03.008.
  • Biagioni, S., C. Carlesi, G. A. Romano, S. Giannini, and R. Maggi. 2008. “PUMA & MetaPub: Open Access to Italian CNR Repositories in the Perspective of the European Digital Repository Infrastructure.” P. 145 in GL-Conference Series: Conference Proceedings.
  • Biagioni, S., D. Castelli, and F. Zoppi. 2009. “Open Access to Grey Literature on E-Infrastructures: The BELIEF Project Digital Library.” Pp. 94–103 in GL-Conference Series: Conference Proceedings.
  • Biagioni, S., D. Castelli, and F. Zoppi. 2010. “Open Access to Grey Literature on E-Infrastructures: The BELIEF Project.” Grey Journal 6(3):149–59.
  • Biagioni, S., D. Castelli, and P. Manghi. 2009. “The OpenAIRE Project Open Access Infrastructure for Research in Europe.” Pp. 92–93 in GL-Conference Series: Conference Proceedings.
  • Bianchini, C., C. Consentino, M. Paci, and M. Baccini. 2020. “Open Access Physical Therapy Journals: Do Predatory Journals Publish Lower-Quality Randomized Controlled Trials?” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 101(6):969–77. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2019.12.012.
  • Bianconi, A., and M. Rittman. 2016. “Condensed Matter: A New Open Access Journal.” Condensed Matter 1(1):1. doi: 10.3390/condmat1010003.
  • Blazakis, K. N., M. Kosma, G. Kostelenos, L. Baldoni, M. Bufacchi, and P. Kalaitzis. 2017. “Description of Olive Morphological Parameters by Using Open Access Software.” Plant Methods 13(1). doi: 10.1186/s13007-017-0261-8.
  • Boero, F. 2017. “Open Access Revolutions.” Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics 17(1):1–8. doi: 10.3354/esep00172.
  • Borzacchiello, M. T., and M. Craglia. 2012. “The Impact on Innovation of Open Access to Spatial Environmental Information: A Research Strategy.” International Journal of Technology Management 60(1–2):114–29. doi: 10.1504/IJTM.2012.049109.
  • Boschmann Käthler, C., U. M. Angst, A. M. Aguilar, and B. Elsener. 2019. “A Novel Approach to Systematically Collect Critical Chloride Contents in Concrete in an Open Access Data Base.” Data in Brief 27. doi: 10.1016/j.dib.2019.104675.
  • Bragazzi, N. L. 2013a. “Commentary on: Haspelmath M. Why Open-Access Publication Should Be Nonprofit-a View from the Field of Theoretical Language Science. Front Behav Neurosci. 2013 Jun 6;7:57.” Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience (JUL):1–4. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2013.00091.
  • Bragazzi, N. L. 2013b. “Ethical, Political and Societal Implications of the Open Access Journal Movement in the Era of Economic Crisis, with Emphasis on Public Health Pharmacogenomics.” Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine 11(4):312–15. doi: 10.2174/1875692111666131126234122.
  • Brumana, R., D. Oreni, B. Cuca, A. Rampini, and M. Pepe. 2012. “Open Access to Historical Atlas: Sources of Information and Services for Landscape Analysis in an SDI Framework.” Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Including Subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) 7334 LNCS(PART 2):397–413. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-31075-1_30.
  • Brumana, R., D. Oreni, B. Cuca, A. Rampini, and M. Pepe. 2013. “Open Access to Historical Information for Landscape Analysis in an SDI Framework.” International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Information Systems 4(3):18–40. doi: 10.4018/ijaeis.2013070102.
  • Brumana, R., P. Condoleo, A. Grimoldi, A. G. Landi, D. Attico, A. Turrina, F. Banfi, and M. Previtali. 2018. “HBIM Feeding Open Access Vault Inventory Through GeoDB HUB.” Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Including Subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) 11196 LNCS:27–38. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-01762-0_3.
  • Brunato, M., and D. Severina. 2005. “WilmaGate: A New Open Access Gateway for Hotspot Management.” Pp. 56–64 in WMASH 2005 - Proceedings of the Third ACM International Workshop on Wireless Mobile Applications and Services on WLAN Hotspots. Vol. 2005.
  • Calise, M., R. De Rosa, and X. F. I. Marín. 2010. “Electronic Publishing, Knowledge Sharing and Open Access: A New Environment for Political Science.” European Political Science 9(SUPPL. 1):S50–60. doi: 10.1057/eps.2010.35.
  • Capaccioni, A. 2014. “The Scholarly Monograph and the Challenges of Open Access [La Monografia Scientifica e Le Sfide Dell’accesso Aperto].” AIB Studi 54(2–3):201–11. doi: 10.2426/aibstudi-10084.
  • Capaccioni, A. 2018. “Open Access: For a Historical and Critical Approach [Open Access: Per Un Approccio Storico e Critico].” AIB Studi 58(1):109–18. doi: 10.2426/aibstudi-11752.
  • Capaccioni, A. 2019. “The Open Access Monograph and the Developments of Open Access [La Monografia Ad Accesso Aperto e Gli Sviluppi Dell’Open Access].” JLIS.It 10(1):59–71. doi: 10.4403/
  • Carli, P., V. De Giorgi, B. Giannotti, S. Seidenari, G. Pellacani, K. Peris, D. Piccolo, P. Rubegni, and L. Andreassi. 2003. “Skin Cancer Day in Italy: Method of Referral to Open Access Clinics and Tumor Prevalence in the Examined Population.” European Journal of Dermatology 13(1):76–79.
  • Carta, M. G., and M. C. Hardoy. 2005. “Why a New Online Open Access Journal in the Field of Clinical and Epidemiological Research in Mental Health?” Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health 1. doi: 10.1186/1745-0179-1-1.
  • Cassella, M & Gargiulo P (2009) Open Access in Italy, 2009. (Unpublished) [Report].
  • Castellucci, P., and C. Barillari. 2020. “The Circle Is Expanding around the World: Open Access against Pandemic [Il Cerchio Si Allarga Intorno al Mondo: Open Access Contro La Pandemia].” AIB Studi 60(1):43–54. doi: 10.2426/aibstudi-12054.
  • Catalani, L. 2017. “Libraries and Wikimedia: Common Strategies for Open Access to Knowledge and the Collaborative Construction of Free Knowledge [Biblioteche e Wikimedia: Strategie Comuni per l’accesso Aperto Alla Conoscenza e La Costruzione Collaborativa Del Sapere Libero].” JLIS.It 8(3):101–14. doi: 10.4403/
  • Cattaneo, A., E. Haroon, K. P. Su, and C. M. Pariante. 2020. “Why We Do Need a New Gold Open Access Journal Called ‘Brain, Behavior, and Immunity – Health.’” Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 83:1–2. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2019.09.014.
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  • Chauvin, M., D. Borys, F. Botta, P. Bzowski, J. Dabin, A. M. Denis-Bacelar, A. Desbrée, N. Falzone, B. Q. Lee, A. Mairani, A. Malaroda, G. Mathieu, E. McKay, E. Mora-Ramirez, A. P. Robinson, D. Sarrut, L. Struelens, A. V. Gil, and M. Bardiès. 2020. “OpenDose: Open-Access Resource for Nuclear Medicine Dosimetry.” Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine 61(10):1514–19. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.119.240366.
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