Hungary has an active research environment supported by government and Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OKTA). Research takes place through the Hungarian Academy of Sciences which maintains 48 research institutions and also the 71 higher education institutions in the country.

There is an OA organisation, HUNOR. The HUNOR (HUNgarian Open Access Repositories) consortium was established in 2008 by the libraries of Hungarian higher education institutions and the Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences to advance national open access practices. The members of HUNOR are dedicated to promoting Hungarian research both nationally and internationally and to achieving effective dissemination of scientific outputs through the implementation of a national infrastructure of open access repositories. Other proposed activities include the organization of a methodology centre, adopting international know-how and standards, the establishment of complementary scientific communication channels, and international relations.

The Hungarian research institutions are organized into two groups:

  • There are 66 higher education institutions in the country: 22 state universities, 7 non- state universities, 5 state universities of applied sciences, 2 non-state universities of applied sciences, 1 state college, and 28 non-state colleges. 
  • The research network of the Academy comprises 15 legally independent research institutions and more than 130 research groups at universities co-financed by the Academy.

As of March 2021, DOAJ indexes 38 OA journals from Hungary. There are 43 OA digital repositories registered in OpenDOAR.

There are currently 4 OA policies registered in ROARMAP.

Enabling Environment

Awareness of OA; HUNOR programme of OA promotion; funding mandate by Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OKTA); Corvinus University, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Debrecen is a member of  Confederation of Open Access Repositories (COAR).

From an infrastructural point of view, the OA status is considered fairly good, from the policy side much further efforts are needed, though the mandate of the Academy of Sciences is elaborate and seems to be effective.

For research data the OA situation is dire in the country. For small countries, like Hungary, the significance of EU-level coordination in shaping OA policies is enormous.

HUNOR (Hungarian Open Repositories) consortium was formed by the higher education institutions and the Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences to promote OA and offer information on methodology, standards and communication channels.

National and Institutional Level Policies/Mandates

Hungary has not implemented a national Open Access/Open Science policy yet.

Funding Basic Research in Hungary: The Hungarian Scientific Research Fund

The governmental research funding in Hungary is allocated through the National Research, Development and Innovation Fund (NRDI Fund), which funds applied research, and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS) as well as the Ministry of Human Resources (EMMI) that support basic research.

The Open Access policy of the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund calls for Open Access to the research it funds either through direct publication in Open Access journals or through self-archiving in appropriate subject or institutional repositories, including that of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

Funding Mandates

Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), the country’s major scientific research funder requires all funded researchers to deposit in an OA repository or publish in an OA journal.

There is also a Thesis mandate vide Government Decree no 33 (7 March 2007) on Doctoral dissertations. 

Potential Barriers

Lack of national OA strategy; lack of clarity on copyright/digital rights issues; researchers’ time involved in depositing (Source: OpenAIRE).

Key Organizations

Hungarian Open Repositories (HUNOR)

Overview: Hungarian Open Repositories (HUNOR) is a consortium of libraries in higher education and research to promote OA.

Communication address: HUNOR c/o University of Debrecen and National Library, H-4032 Debrecen, Egyetem  tés 1, Hungary.

Events and Programs

  • Opportunities for Open Access at Corvinus University of Budapest, 2019-10-15, Hungary, Organized by Adam Hoffman, Type: workshop
  • Opportunities for Open Access at Corvinus University of Budapest, 2019-10-10, Hungary, Organized by Adam Hoffman, Type: workshop
  • OPEN SCIENCE TRAINER BOOTCAMP, DEBRECEN, 14 Jan 2019, Debrecen, Hungary
  • Open Science Week at the University of Debrecen, 2018-11-12, Hungary, Organized by Judit Fazekas-Paragh, Type: presentations, and, world, café
  • Library Training for PhD Students, 2018-11-08, Hungary, Organized by Nora Borzsonyi, Type: training
  • Library Training for PhD Students, 2018-10-18, Hungary, Organized by Corvinus University of Budapest, University Library, Type: training
  • OPEN SCIENCE WORKSHOP IN HUNGARY, 07 Nov 2017, Debrecen, Hungary
  • OA and DOAJ, 2016-10-26, Hungary, Organized by USZ Klebelsberg Library, Type: discussion
  • Open Access Week at University of Debrecen - University and National Library (DEENK), 2016-10-25, Hungary, Organized by University of Debrecen - University and National Library (DEENK), Type: workshop, (presentations, discussion)
  • Open Access University Presses, 2016-10-25, Hungary, Organized by USZ Klebelsberg Library, Type: discussion
  • Financing open access at Corvinus University of Budapest, 2016-10-25, Hungary, Organized by Zsuzsanna Nagy, Adam Hoffmann, Type: workshop
  • Basic OA, basic English, 2016-10-24, Hungary, Organized by USZ Klebelsberg Library, Type: language, class
  • Data management - Research data repositories, services and challenges, 2016-10-18, Hungary, Organized by Zsuzsanna Nagy, Adam Hoffmann, Type: workshop
  • Open Journal System, 2016-10-18, Hungary, Organized by Zsuzsanna Nagy, Adam Hoffmann, Type: workshop
  • Working together to promote open access policy alignment in Europe, 29 Oct 2015 - 30 Oct 2015, Budapest, Hungary
  • Institutional research data management, 2015-10-19, Hungary, Organized by Gyöngyi Karácsony, Edit Gorogh, Type: workshop, (presentations, discussion)
  • PASTEUR4OA PROJECT MID-TERM MEETING, 13 May 2015, Brussels, Belgium
  • OPENAIRE2020 KICK-OFF MEETING, 28 Jan 2015 - 29 Jan 2015, Athens, Greece
  • January 2014: The Institute for Legal Studies of the Centre for Social Sciences of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences started an open access online legal encyclopaedia in order to meet the changes in the practice of scholarly publication.
  • January 2014 – June 2014: Invitation to the editorial board.
  • July 2014 – June 2015: Preparation of the list of encyclopaedia entries by the members of the editorial board; controlling for overlapping entries and their clarification; preparation of the final list of the encyclopaedia entries; invitation of authors; selection of the copyeditor; and development of the encyclopaedia’s webpage.
  • July 2015 – December 2018: Preparation of the encyclopaedia entries, including the peer review and uploading of the entries to the webpage. We will launch the webpage when 20 percent of the entries have been written. All the entries under preparation and their authors will be indicated on the webpage to provide a full picture of the project.
  • 24 November, 2014: Case Study: Open Access in Hungary, PASTEUR4OA Project, Hungary Academy of Sciences


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