Finland has a long tradition in supporting OA in various declarations. However, it is only recently that concrete actions have been taken towards a state where all research data and publications are freely available. The share of OA is increasing. At the moment it is estimated that about 20% of all scientific articles are OA, out of which 12% are green and the remaining constitute of hybrids and publications with an embargo (Björk et al. 2013). There are a total of 13 universities and 22 universities of applied sciences in Finland. A total of 12 State research institutes operate under the auspices of the other ministries. The Academy of Finland is a key source of funding for scientific research in Finland, and it operates under the mandate of the Ministry's Department for Higher Education and Science Policy

As of March 2021, OpenDOAR registers 22 OA repositories in Finland. DOAJ indexes 50 Finnish OA journals.

29 January, 2014: The Nordic Council of Ministers (NCM) introduced an Open Access mandate which applies to all written publications published by the NCM from 1 June 2014 onwards. The mandate and its effectiveness is to be evaluated annually by the NCM. In a second step, planned to be initiated during 2014, the Open Access mandate will be further developed and made applicable also to all written publications funded or co-funded by NCM grants or under NCM contracts. It was recommended that all written publications published by the NCM are published with a Creative Commons license, preferably CC-BY or CC-BY SA. This mandate applies to the NCM secretariat, NordForsk, Nordic Innovation, Nordic Energy Research, Nordicom, Nordic School of Public Health, Nordregio, and Nordic Centre for Welfare and Social Issues.

The Nordic Council of Ministers (NCM) is a publically funded co-operation between the governments of the Nordic countries (

Currently, 33  institutional OA policies are registered in ROARMAP.

Enabling Environment

FinnOA working group was founded in 2003 to promote the spread of OA. It consists of representative members from university faculty and research staff, scholarly publishers and libraries.The Finnish Council of University Rectors (UNIFI) signed the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities in 2006. Still at the moment self-archiving is required only by the University of Helsinki and supported by the Universities of Tampere and Jyväskylä. The Rectors' Conference of Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences (ARENE) signed a statement in 2009 where they agree to self-archive all publication in an institutional repository.

In 2011 the Government Programme promised to make available digital data materials managed by the public sector for research and education purposes in an easily reusable format via information networks. To implement this Programme the Ministry of Education and Culture started a project called TTA where the aim is to create a national OA related science policy and build infrastructure for HEIs. For this the Ministry of Education and Culture buys collaborative data services from state owned CSC - IT Center for Science Ltd. The Academy of Finland is the main funder and recommends publishing in OA journals whenever possible

The Ministry of Education and Culture of Finland launched the Open Science and Research Initiative (ATT) for the promotion of research information availability and open science platform for the years 2014-2017. The main goal of the Open Science and Research Initiative is for Finland to become one of the leading countries in openness of science and research by the year 2017. On 25th November 2014, the Ministry of Education and Culture of Finland released The Open Science and Research Roadmap 2014–2017. The project focuses on three factors: (i) Scientific publications (storage, metadata service and accessibility services of publications); (ii) Research data (storage, metadata service and accessibility of data) and (iii) Research methods (storage, metadata services and accessibility of methods).

National and Institutional Level Policies/Mandates

The Ministry of Education and Culture officially supports OA. A proposal for a national policy is in circulation for comments. The proposal recommends gold or green OA and rejects hybrid. A related funding scheme is also in the making. 

The Ministry of Education and Culture completed the Atlas of Open Science and Study in Finland 2019 to assess the openness of Finnish research organisations, research-funding organisations, academic and cultural institutes abroad, and learned societies and academies in Finland.

It mentions the following policies of publications, research data and methods.

Potential Barriers

In general there is a lack of incentive, some legal barriers (related to immaterial rights) and lack of awareness among the research community. 

Small scholarly journals are concerned that OA might make publishing in national languages redundant. 

The second largest funder TEKES supports a wide distribution of the research results they have funded but does not endorse OA as such.

Key Organizations

Academy of Finland 

Overview: The largest funding body in Finland. Their aim is to finance high-quality scientific research, act as a science and science policy expert, and strengthen the position of science and research. The Academy works to contribute to the renewal, diversification and increasing internationalization of Finnish scientific research. 


Overview: TEKES is the second largest funding body in Finland. They concentrate in technology and innovation. 

Federation of Finnish Learned Societies 

Overview: A national co-operative body for learned societies in Finland. It issues statements, launches initiatives and makes recommendations relating to academic research, especially when it serves to promote the interests of 260 member societies. It also supports learned societies in their publishing activities by providing distribution and storage services and consultation. 


Overview: FinnOa is constituted by a group of professionals interested in promoting open access to scientific information. These people come mainly from the academia, libraries and data management. 

The National Library of Finland 

Overview: The National Library of Finland provides centralized repository platform services for 38 organisations, including many of the Finnish universities and universities of applied sciences. It also operates the national FinELib consortium, which acquires electronic resources centrally on behalf of its member organisations. 

University of Helsinki 

Overview: The oldest and largest university in Finland and a leading player in OA initiatives. The University’s digital depository, HELDA, contains full-text materials produced at the University. 

CSC – IT Center for Science Ltd 

Overview: CSC is a wholly government-owned special task company, which develops and provides IT services for research, teaching, culture and administrative purposes. CSC’s main customers are the Ministry of Education and Culture and the organizations coming under it, higher education institutions and research institutes. 


Overview: The Finnish Social Science Data Archive (FSD) is a national resource centre for social science research and teaching. FSD archives, promotes and disseminates digital research data for research, teaching and learning purposes. The archive is funded by the Ministry of Education and Culture and is a separate unit of the University of Tampere. 

Ministry of Education and Culture 

Overview: Within the Finnish Government, the Ministry of Education and Culture is responsible for developing educational, science, cultural, sport and youth policies and international cooperation in these fields. 

Events and Programmes

  • Open Science Kiosk, 2019-10-18, Finland, Organized by Helsinki University Library | Type: stand, kiosk
  • Open Science Afternoon 2018, 2018-10-24, Finland, Organized by Helsinki University Library | Type: discussion, panel
  • Paywall: the business of Scholarship, 2018-10-19, Finland, Organized by Helsinki University Library | Type: movie
  • Open Access Week Café for researchers, 2016-10-27, Finland, Organized by Tritonia Academic Library | Type: workshop
  • Open stand in Sky Cafe corridor, 2016-10-27, Finland, Organized by Ilkka Nokelainen | Type: open, stand
  • Open stand in 6-cafe, 2016-10-26, Finland, Organized by Ilkka Nokelainen | Type: open, stand
  • Laurea University of Applied Sciences OA Week, 2016-10-24, Finland, Organized by Minna Marjamaa | Type: promotion
  • Open Access Week in Helsinki, Finland, 2016-10-24, Finland, Organized by Helsinki University Library | Type: information, booth, and, cafe, panel, discussion
  • Panel discussion in LUT, 2016-10-24, Finland, Organized by Ilkka Nokelainen | Type: panel, discussion
  • August 2016: Infrastructures and Networking for Open Science. This national workshop is organized by the Helsinki University Library in cooperation with Finnish Literature Society and OpenAIRE 2020 project.
  • 20 October 2015: Open Science Workshop; Helsinki, Finland. This is an Open Access Week 2015 event and is one of the 24 OA training programmes supported by FOSTER for 2015.
  • 14-16 October 2015: International Workshop on Forest Science Publishing, Helsinki, Finland. This will be the first activity of the new Working Party of IUFRO (International Union of Forest Research Organisations). The aim of the working party is to provide a forum for discussions, training, exchange of ideas, and development of editorial practices of journals dealing with forests, wood science, and related research. The Working Party and its first meeting are expected to be of special interest to the editors and editorial board members of peer-reviewed forest science journals for discussing timely issues on scientific publishing. A second session open to the wider forest and environmental science community in Finland, will also be organized; especially for young scientists. 
  • 11-12 May 2015: YEAR Annual Conference 2015: Open Science; Helsinki, Finland. The two-day annual conference was hosted by VTT and co-funded by FOSTER. This year’s topic was Open Science in Horizon 2020. 
  • 10 March 2015: Open Science Show and Tell; Helsinki, Finland.
  • February 2016: Finland in the International Open Science arenas. This event was organized by the Finnish Committee for Research Data (FCRD) for all members of the Finnish research community.
  • 20 October 2014: International Open Access Week Events: Open Science- Impact and Research Funding; University of Helsinki, Finland.
  • 15-16 September 2014: Open Finland 2014 Exhibits the Opportunities of Open Data; Helsinki, Finland.
  • Nordic Perspectives on Open Access and Open Science. Seminar in Helsinki, October 15. 2013. 
  • Open Repositories 2014. Conference in Helsinki, from 9.-13. June, 2014. 
  • 14-15 August, 2014: 'What is the Status of Open Access to Research Data in the Nordic Countries?' To increase and exchange knowledge about the respective Nordic countries’ views on Open Access, NordForsk invited representatives of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and the European Commission to a workshop on 14-15 August to discuss Open Access to research data.


  • "OA Business Models for Finnish Scholarly Journals?" Presentation given by Ilva, Jyrki at the Nordic Open Access Forum meeting in Copenhagen, June 24, 2014.
  • 25 September 2014: Finland Plans to Embrace Open Access by 2017 in bid to Raise Public Awareness of Science by Jenny Maukola.
  • Aalto, T., M. Cherchi, M. Harjanne, S. Bhat, P. Heimala, F. Sun, M. Kapulainen, T. Hassinen, and T. Vehmas. 2019. “Open-Access 3-Μm SOI Waveguide Platform for Dense Photonic Integrated Circuits.” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 25(5). doi: 10.1109/JSTQE.2019.2908551.
  • Academy of Finland (2010) Academy of Finland Strategy.
  • Avital, M., B. C. Björk, R. J. Boland, K. Crowston, and A. Majchrzak. 2008. “Open Access Publishing and the Future of Information Systems Research [La Publication En Open Access Et L’avenir de La Recherche Sur Les Systèmes D’information].” in ICIS 2008 Proceedings - Twenty Ninth International Conference on Information Systems.
  • Ayris, P., L. Björnshauge, M. Collier, E. Ferwerda, N. Jacobs, K. Sinikara, S. de Vries, and A. van Wesenbeeck. 2015. “LERU Roadmap towards Open Access.” International Microbiology 18(3):195–202. doi: 10.2436/20.1501.01.250.
  • Balk, T., J. Kukkonen, K. Karatzas, T. Bassoukos, and V. Epitropou. 2011. “A European Open Access Chemical Weather Forecasting Portal.” Atmospheric Environment 45(38):6917–22. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.09.058.
  • Björk, B. C. 2004. “Open Access to Scientific Publications - An Analysis of the Barriers to Change?” Information Research 9(2).
  • Björk, B. C. 2006. “Open Access-Maximizing Research Impact in the Internet Age.” Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering 20(4):225–26. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)0887-3801(2006)20:4(225).
  • Björk, B. C. 2011. “A Study of Innovative Features in Scholarly Open Access Journals.” Journal of Medical Internet Research 13(4). doi: 10.2196/jmir.1802.
  • Bjork, B. C. 2012. “A Comparison of Subscription and Open Access Journals in Construction Management and Related Fields.” Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building 12(2):27–42. doi: 10.5130/ajceb.v12i2.2560.
  • Björk, B. C. 2012. “The Hybrid Model for Open Access Publication of Scholarly Articles: A Failed Experiment?” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 63(8):1496–1504. doi: 10.1002/asi.22709.
  • Björk, B. C. 2014. “Open Access Subject Repositories: An Overview.” Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology 65(4):698–706. doi: 10.1002/asi.23021.
  • Björk, B. C. 2016. “The Open Access Movement at a Crossroad: Are the Big Publishers and Academic Social Media Taking Over?” Learned Publishing 29(2):131–34. doi: 10.1002/leap.1021.
  • Björk, B. C. 2017a. “Gold, Green, and Black Open Access.” Learned Publishing 30(2):173–75. doi: 10.1002/leap.1096.
  • Björk, B. C. 2017b. “Growth of Hybrid Open Access, 2009-2016.” PeerJ 2017(9). doi: 10.7717/peerj.3878.
  • Björk, B. C. 2017c. “Journal Portals - An Important Infrastructure for Non-Commercial Scholarly Open Access Publishing.” Online Information Review 41(5):643–54. doi: 10.1108/OIR-03-2016-0088.
  • Björk, B. C. 2017d. “Open Access to Scientific Articles: A Review of Benefits and Challenges.” Internal and Emergency Medicine 12(2):247–53. doi: 10.1007/s11739-017-1603-2.
  • Björk, B. C. 2017e. “Scholarly Journal Publishing in Transition- from Restricted to Open Access.” Electronic Markets 27(2):101–9. doi: 10.1007/s12525-017-0249-2.
  • Björk, B. C. 2018a. “Publishing Speed and Acceptance Rates of Open Access Megajournals.” Online Information Review. doi: 10.1108/OIR-04-2018-0151.
  • Björk, B. C. 2018b. “Scholarly Journals in Building and Civil Engineering – The Big Picture and Current Impact of Open Access.” Journal of Information Technology in Construction 23(1):381–88.
  • Björk, B. C. 2019. “Open Access Journal Publishing in the Nordic Countries.” Learned Publishing 32(3):227–36. doi: 10.1002/leap.1231.
  • Björk, B. C. 2021. “Open Access to Construction It Research Articles – Developments over the Past 25 Years.” Journal of Information Technology in Construction 26:23–27. doi: 10.36680/j.itcon.2021.002.
  • Björk, B. C., A. Roos, and M. Lauri. 2009. “Scientific Journal Publishing: Yearly Volume and Open Access Availability.” Information Research 14(1).
  • Björk, B. C., A. Roosr, and M. Lauri. 2008. “Global Annual Volume of Peer Reviewed Scholarly Articles and the Share Available via Different Open Access Options.” Pp. 178–86 in Open Scholarship: Authority, Community, and Sustainability in the Age of Web 2.0 - Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Electronic Publishing, ELPUB 2008.
  • Björk, B. C., and D. Solomon. 2012a. “Open Access versus Subscription Journals: A Comparison of Scientific Impact.” BMC Medicine 10. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-10-73.
  • Björk, B. C., and D. Solomon. 2012b. “Pricing Principles Used by Scholarly Open Access Publishers.” Learned Publishing 25(2):132–37. doi: 10.1087/20120207.
  • Björk, B. C., and T. Korkeamäki. 2020. “Adoption of the Open Access Business Model in Scientific Journal Publishing: A Cross-Disciplinary Study.” College and Research Libraries 81(7):1080–94. doi: 10.5860/crl.81.7.1080.
  • Björk, B. C., and Ž. Turk. 2006. “The Electronic Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITcon): An Open Access Journal Using an Un-Paid, Volunteer-Based Organization.” Information Research 11(3):185–203.
  • Björk, B. C., C. Shen, and M. Laakso. 2016. “A Longitudinal Study of Independent Scholar-Published Open Access Journals.” PeerJ 2016(5). doi: 10.7717/peerj.1990.
  • Björk, B. C., M. Laakso, P. Welling, and P. Paetau. 2014. “Anatomy of Green Open Access.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 65(2):237–50. doi: 10.1002/asi.22963.
  • Björk, B. C., P. Welling, M. Laakso, P. Majlender, T. Hedlund, and G. Gudnason. 2010. “Open Access To The Scientific Journal Literature: Situation 2009.” PLoS ONE 5(6). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011273.
  • Björk, B. C., P. Welling, P. Majlender, T. Hedlund, M. Laakso, and G. Gudnasson. 2010. “The Open Access Landscape 2009.” Pp. 404–6 in ELPUB 2010 - Publishing in the Networked World: Transforming the Nature of Communication, 14th International Conference on Electronic Publishing.
  • Björk, B. C., S. Kanto-Karvonen, and J. T. Harviainen. 2020. “How Frequently Are Articles in Predatory Open Access Journals Cited.” Publications 8(2). doi: 10.3390/PUBLICATIONS8020017.
  • Björk, B. C., Ž. Turk, and J. Holmström. 2005. “The Scholarly Journal Re-Engineered: A Case Study of an Open Access Journal in Construction It.” Electronic Journal of Information Technology in Construction 10:349–71.
  • Björk, B.-C., Laakso, M., Welling, P. and Paetau, P. (2013). Anatomy of green open access. J. Am. Soc. Inf. Sci.. doi: 10.1002/asi.22963 
  • Boufarss, M. 2020. “Charting the Open Access Scholarly Journals Landscape in the UAE.” Scientometrics. doi: 10.1007/s11192-020-03349-0.
  • Boufarss, M., and M. Laakso. 2020. “Open Sesame? Open Access Priorities, Incentives, and Policies among Higher Education Institutions in the United Arab Emirates.” Scientometrics 124(2):1553–77. doi: 10.1007/s11192-020-03529-y.
  • Calderon, A., D. Colling, A. Huffman, K. Lassila-Perini, T. McCauley, A. Rao, A. Rodriguez-Marrero, and E. Sexton-Kennedy. 2015. “Open Access to High-Level Data and Analysis Tools in the CMS Experiment at the LHC.” in Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Vol. 664.
  • Cauwe, M., C. Rentrop, L. Clerc, K. Keränen, and T. Marsden. 2018. “Open-Access Pilot Line to Accelerate Industrial Uptake of Hybrid Printed Electronics.” Pp. 31–38 in Smart Systems Integration 2018 - International Conference and Exhibition on Integration Issues of Miniaturized Systems.
  • Choque-Velasquez, J., D. A. Kozyrev, R. Colasanti, P. Thiarawat, P. Intarakhao, B. R. Jahromi, and J. Hernesniemi. 2017. “The Open Access Video Collection Project ‘Hernesniemi’s 1001 and More Microsurgical Videos of Neurosurgery’: A Legacy for Educational Purposes.” Surgical Neurology International 8(1). doi: 10.4103/sni.sni_158_17.
  • Creelman, A and Forsberg, A (2010) Open educational resources – a resource for learning Sciecom Info Vol.6: 3.
  • Davies, M. C. R., P. Ayris, G. Stone, J. Cheshire, R. Jackson, A. Hacker, M. Bunz, E. Ferwerda, H. Newton, M. Dacos, P. Mounier, and Y. Neuman. 2014. “How Should We Fund Open Access Monographs and What Do You Think Is the Most Likely Way That Funding Will Happen?” Insights: The UKSG Journal 27(SUPPL. 1):45–50. doi: 10.1629/2048-7754.164.
  • Hänninen, T., J. Vartiainen, M. Juntti, and M. Raustia. 2010. “Implementation of Spectrum Sensing on Wireless Open-Access Research Platform.” in 2010 3rd International Symposium on Applied Sciences in Biomedical and Communication Technologies, ISABEL 2010.
  • Hedlund, T (2010) A road map for open access to research results Sciecom Info Vol.6: 2.
  • Hedlund, T and Montonen, C (2008) Promoting open access in Finland – the OA-JES project ScieCom info Vol 4: 1.
  • Hedlund, T. 2008. “Researcher’s Attitudes towards Open Access and Institutional Repositories: A Methodological Study for Developing a Survey Form Directed to Researchers in Business Schools.” Pp. 15–22 in Open Scholarship: Authority, Community, and Sustainability in the Age of Web 2.0 - Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Electronic Publishing, ELPUB 2008.
  • Hedlund, T. and Roos, A. (2013). FinnOA 10 years of open access work and a road map for the future. Sciecom Info, Vol 9, No 2. 
  • Hedlund, T., and A. Roos. 2006. “Open Access Publishing in Finland: Discipline-Specific Publishing Patterns in Biomedicine and Economics.” Pp. 145–53 in Digital Spectrum: Integrating Technology and Culture - Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Electronic Publishing, ELPUB 2006.
  • Hedlund, T., and I. Rabow. 2009. “Scholarly Publishing and Open Access in the Nordic Countries.” Learned Publishing 22(3):177–86. doi: 10.1087/2009303.
  • Hedlund, T., T. Gustafsson, and B. C. Björk. 2004. “The Open Access Scientific Journal: An Empirical Study.” Learned Publishing 17(3):199–209. doi: 10.1087/095315104323159621.
  • Heise, C., and J. M. Pearce. 2020. “From Open Access to Open Science: The Path From Scientific Reality to Open Scientific Communication.” SAGE Open 10(2). doi: 10.1177/2158244020915900.
  • Hellman, M. 2020. “Public Funding of Science Publishing: Why We Are Open Access.” NAD Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 37(1):3–5. doi: 10.1177/1455072520902445.
  • Henle, K., S. Bell, L. Brotons, J. Clobert, D. Evans, C. Görg, M. Grodzinska-Jurczak, B. Gruber, Y. Haila, P. Y. Henry, A. Huth, R. Julliard, P. Keil, M. Kleyer, D. Johan Kotze, W. Kunin, S. Lengyel, Y. P. Lin, A. Loyau, G. W. Luck, W. Magnusson, C. Margules, Y. Matsinos, P. May, I. Sousa-Pinto, H. Possingham, S. Potts, I. Ring, J. S. Pryke, M. J. Samways, D. Saunders, D. Schmeller, J. Similä, S. Sommer, I. Steffan-Dewenter, P. Stoev, M. T. Sykes, B. Tóthmérész, J. Tzanopoulos, R. Yam, and L. Penev. 2012. “Nature Conservation - A New Dimension in Open Access Publishing Bridging Science and Application.” Nature Conservation 1:1–10. doi: 10.3897/natureconservation.1.3081.
  • Holmberg, K., J. Hedman, T. D. Bowman, F. Didegah, and M. Laakso. 2020. “Do Articles in Open Access Journals Have More Frequent Altmetric Activity than Articles in Subscription-Based Journals? An Investigation of the Research Output of Finnish Universities.” Scientometrics 122(1):645–59. doi: 10.1007/s11192-019-03301-x.
  • Holmström, J. 2004. “The Cost per Article Reading of Open Access Articles.” D-Lib Magazine 10(1). doi: 10.1045/january2004-holmstrom.
  • Hua, F., C. Shen, T. Walsh, A. M. Glenny, and H. Worthington. 2017. “Open Access: Concepts, Findings, and Recommendations for Stakeholders in Dentistry.” Journal of Dentistry 64:13–22. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2017.06.012.
  • Huettmann, F., Y. Artukhin, O. Gilg, and G. Humphries. 2011. “Predictions of 27 Arctic Pelagic Seabird Distributions Using Public Environmental Variables, Assessed with Colony Data: A First Digital IPY and GBIF Open Access Synthesis Platform.” Marine Biodiversity 41(1):141–79. doi: 10.1007/s12526-011-0083-2.
  • Hyppölä, J., J. P. V. Essen, and E. P. Keskitalo. 2015. “Beyond Open Access - Tools and Methods for Open Research.” Pp. 206–9 in ACADEMICMINDTREK 2015 - Proceedings of the 19th International Academic Mindtrek Conference.
  • Ikonen, J., and M. Juutilainen. 2008. “User Views on Developing an Open Access Network.” Pp. 1355–61 in 3rd International Conference on Communications and Networking in China, ChinaCom 2008.
  • Ilva (2014) Integrating CRIS and repository – an overview of the situation in Finland and in three other Nordic countries: Presentation at Open Repositories 2014, Helsinki, Finland.
  • Ilva (2014) OA business models for Finnish scholarly journals?: Presentation on Nordic Open Access Forum, Copenhagen.
  • Ilva, J. 2017. “Towards Reliable Data - Counting the Finnish Open Access Publications.” Pp. 299–304 in Procedia Computer Science. Vol. 106.
  • Ilva, J. 2018. “Looking for Commitment: Finnish Open Access Journals, Infrastructure and Funding.” Insights: The UKSG Journal 31. doi: 10.1629/uksg.414.
  • Ingwersen, P., and A. Elleby. 2011. “Do Open Access Working Papers Attract More Citations Compared to Printed Journal Articles from the Same Research Unit?” Pp. 327–32 in Proceedings of ISSI 2011 - 13th Conference of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics. Vol. 1.
  • Jokinen, M., and H. Tuomivaara. 2011. “LE-WARP: Linux Enriched Design for Wireless Open-Access Research Platform.” in ACM International Conference Proceeding Series.
  • Juutilainen, M., J. Ikonen, L. M. Sainio, and J. Porras. 2006. “Open Access Networks: Operating Options and Challenges of Business Logic.” Pp. 247–51 in SoftCOM 2006 - International Conference on Software, Telecommunications andComputer Networks.
  • Juutilainen, M., T. Lapinlampi, J. Ikonen, and J. Porras. 2006. “Structure and Performance of Open Access Networks - Case Lappeenranta Model.” Pp. 71–80 in Proceedings of the 6th International Network Conference, INC 2006.
  • Kalliola, R., T. Toivonen, V. Miyakawa, and M. Mavila. 2008. “Open Access to Information Bridges Science and Development in Amazonia: Lessons of the SIAMAZONIA Service.” Environmental Research Letters 3(3). doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/3/3/034004.
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