Denmark has had discussions on open access issues for many years. This has increased, culminating in the national Open Access Committee’s recommendations (2011) towards a green open access policy in the country, enhancing the visibility and recognition of research output in a relatively small country. Denmark is home to eight universities, eight University Colleges, and a host of other public and private research institutes.
The Ministry of Higher Education and Science oversees the public study. Denmark has an Open Access National Policy. According to the policy, Open Access will be implemented using the green model, which entails concurrently filling of quality-assured research papers in institutional or subject-specific archives (repositories) with Open Access. The technique, however, does not rule out the use of the golden model as long as it does not increase publishing costs.
As of March 2021 there are 15 OA repositories registered in OpenDOAR. DOAJ indexes 29 OA journals. But several universities now use OJS and have built journal collections, including also older institutional journals: Aalborg University (6 journals), Roskilde University (14 journals), Copenhagen Business School, (11 journals). State and University Library (34 journals).
In June 2014, the Danish government announced its national strategy for Open Access. Global strategies for open access and research data management, on the other hand, were published in 2015. The main goals of this national OA strategy were discussed. Denmark has yet to enact an Open Access/Open Science strategy at the national level.
29 January, 2014: The Nordic Council of Ministers (NCM) introduced an Open Access mandate which applies to all written publications published by the NCM from 1 June 2014 onwards. The mandate and its effectiveness is to be evaluated annually by the NCM. In a second step, planned to be initiated during 2014, the Open Access mandate will be further developed and made applicable also to all written publications funded or co-funded by NCM grants or under NCM contracts. It was recommended that all written publications published by the NCM are published with a Creative Commons license, preferably CC-BY or CC-BY SA. This mandate applies to the NCM secretariat, NordForsk, Nordic Innovation, Nordic Energy Research, Nordicom, Nordic School of Public Health, Nordregio, and Nordic Centre for Welfare and Social Issues. The Nordic Council of Ministers (NCM) is a publically funded co-operation between the governments of the Nordic countries (www.norden.org).
Currently, 9 OA policies are registered in ROARMAP.
Although there are institutional mandates at almost all universities the Berlin Declaration has been signed only by few Danish institutions: The Royal Library (2005), Roskilde University (2006), Copenhagen Business School (2008), Denmark’s Electronic Research Library (2008), The Danish Council for Independent Research (2011) and Aalborg University (2012).
The Danish Council for Independent Research (DFF), the Danish Council for Strategic Research, the Danish National Research Foundations, the Danish Advanced Technology Foundation, and the Danish Council for Technology and Innovation all want to establish Open Access as the standard in scientific publishing and therefore demands green Open Access. Embargoes from 6-12 months are allowed. Open Access policy for public research councils and foundations
The Ministry of Science, Innovation and Higher Education has through the Danish Agency for Research and Innovation focus on Open Science covering the work of implementing Open Access to research publications in the form of scientific peer-reviewed articles, as well as preserving and ensuring access to research data. In 2009 an Open Access Committee, ten members of the country’s library, research and academic communities, were tasked with developing an OA strategy and compliance with Council of the European Union Council’s conclusions on scientific knowledge in the digital age. The OA Committee recommendations (2011) include establishing a national OA policy; a green OA policy with quality assurance in conjunction with scientific publishers; promoting OA in all scientific, research and academic institutions; establishing one common national research database; developing activities within EU.
National and Institutional Level Policies/Mandates
The above mentioned Danish Agency for Research and Innovation (former Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation) and Denmark’s Electronic Research Library appointed the Open Access Committee in 2009 for the purpose of providing suggestions on how the EU Council’s recommendations on Open Access could be implemented.The Committee published their final report in 2011 titled: Recommendations for Implementation of Open Access in Denmark. In this report 16 recommendations are outlined. The first and basic recommendation says: The Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation establishes an official Danish Open Access policy. This is indeed expected within short time now phrased on the basis of green Open Access.
In terms of OA policies, there is a mixed picture among funders. Denmark, unlike most other Nordic countries, has a large number of private research foundations. With the exception of the Lundbeck Foundation, none of the major Danish public and private research funding bodies have policies about open access to research data. The Danish Open Access Strategy has been adopted by the publicly funded research foundations as a common OA policy. Just one of Denmark's private foundations has done so. These foundations then demand that grant recipients make their research findings and articles public. This criterion explicitly excludes data, and OA publication costs are not eligible for reimbursement. Data is specifically excluded from this requirement, and OA publication costs are not eligible for funding (and obviously neither is data management costs).
Public Danish funders with an Open Access Policy:
- Danish Council for Independent Research (DFF)
- Danish National Research Foundation
- Danish Ministry of Science, Technology & Innovation
- Nordic Council of Ministers
Private Danish funders with an Open Access Policy:
- The Velux Foundations: Villum Foundation and Velux Foundation - (in Danish only)
Denmark has 8 major Institutions which have open access policies are listed here:
- Aarhus University OA policy
- Aalborg University OA policy (in Danish only)
- Copenhagen Business School
- Copenhagen university – no institutional policy
- Danish Technical University
- IT university – not public
- Roskilde University (in Danish only)
- University of Southern Denmark
- Still insufficient awareness of OA amongst individual researchers.
- Still uncertainty on OA models amongst researchers and still uncertainty on the funding.
- No universities have an OA fund (Copenhagen Business School did plan to have one, but refrained).
Danish Agency for Research and Innovation
Overview: Serves and oversees a wide range of independent councils, commissions and committees which support and advise on research and innovation. It is the lead agent for the OA recommendations.
Denmark’s Electronic Research Library (DEFF):
Technical University of Denmark, DTU, participates in the FP7 project OpenAIRE www.openaire.eu and is a member of the Open Access working group under the international collaboration of Knowledge Exchange between Holland, the UK, Germany and Denmark.
The Royal Library, Roskilde University, Copenhagen Business School, State and University Library.
Denmark's Electronic Research Library (DEFF) is collaborating in Knowledge Exchange (KE), along with JISC (UK), SURFfoundation (Netherlands) and DFG (Germany) - Open Access is one of the main subjects in the DEFF strategy 2012-2016: “Libraries as catalysts for the development of Denmark as an innovative society”. OpenAIRE
The Danish Open Access Network: A network with representatives from all the universities in Denmark. The purpose of the network is to share experience and knowledge about Open Access and disseminate information on Open Access. The network has been supported by Denmark’s Electronis Research library (DEFF), but funding has ended 2013 and the future is undecided.
Current OA-related project: The Open Access Barometer. A DEFF financed project. (Symposium 2. December 2013). Support Open Access Publishing (DEFF project) ORCID/DK (DEFF project) Publication strategies (DEFF project)
Events and Programmes
- 12 June 2020, A library’s learning from DMP feedback
- 18 December 2019, Focus on Open Science - National workshop in Denmark
- 28 November 2016, Danish OpenAIRE national workshop on challenges and possibilities for Open Science
- May 2015: Young Alliance Against Cancer (Denmark): “Leveraging open science to facilitate interdisciplinary cancer research.” This was a FOSTER-supported training programme organized in partnership with EIFL with the aim of setting in place sustainable mechanisms for EU researchers to Foster Open Science. This was one of the 24 training programmes organized in 2015 for the the research communities of 17 other EU countries.
- 27 October 2014: Open Access Seminar for Research Administrators; Aarhus University Library, Aarhus, Denmark.
- 14-15 August, 2014: 'What is the Status of Open Access to Research Data in the Nordic Countries?' To increase and exchange knowledge about the respective Nordic countries’ views on Open Access, NordForsk invited representatives of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and the European Commission to a workshop on 14-15 August to discuss Open Access to research data. Workshop participants were: Hanne-Louise Kirkegaard (Ministry of Higher Education and Science in Denmark), Sami Niinimäki (Ministry of Education and Culture in Finland), Jurki Hakapää (Academy of Finland), Ásdís Jónsdóttir (Ministry of Education, Science and Culture in Iceland), Roar Skålin (Research Council of Norway), Anna Wetterbom (Swedish Research Council), Leif Laaksonen (Research Data Alliance Europe (RDA) Project coordinator, Finland), Tómas Jóhannesson (Icelandic Meteorological Office and the Nordic Centre of Excellence SVALI), Johanna Ekström (Nordic Biobanking and Molecular Resource Infrastructure (BBMRI Nordic)), Gudmund Høst (Nordic e-Infrastructure Collaboration (NeIC)), Riita Mustonen (NordForsk), Anni Hellman (European Commission).
- OA Mandates and OA Global OA Growth, 2014-06-21, Denmark, Organized by Niels Stern | Type: oa debate
- 21-26 June 2014: Euroscience Open Forum 2014; Copenhagen, Denmark.
- A number of OA projects have been completed with the support of Nordbib: Aiding scientific journals towards open access publishing; An e-print archive for Nordic arts and humanities; Development of information environment architecture for Nordic countries; Networks and knowledge dissemination in Nordic Asian study institutions; ScieCom Info - Nordic-Baltic forum for scientific communication (finished & extended); OA-barometer 2009; License to Publish : promoting Open Access and authors' rights in the Nordic social sciences and humanities; Networks and knowledge dissemination in Nordic Asian study institutions - phase 2.
- A final project was launched in 2009 with the title "Retrodigitization of common Nordic scholarly journals." This project will target journals that are truly Nordic in nature and digitalise them into an Open Access context and attempt to use Creative Commons as a means of negotiating potential rights issues.
- Open Access for Climate Scientists 2011, 2011-10-26, Denmark, Organized by Carina Anderberg, Mikael Elbaek & Ivo Grigorov | Type: training, webinar
- Danish Open Access Network has just been funded for another year from October 2011 – October 2012.
- Public Access to research was funded by DEFF in 2007 – 2008 to raise awareness of OA-policies and self-archiving.
- There is an active OA Committee who recently reported upon OA implementation and made recommendations (2011) for future OA work The report is under revision and together with a proposed national OA strategy for Denmark, will be presented for government consideration in December 2011
- The Open Access Paradigm: What? Where? When? Why? How?, 2010-12-06, Denmark, Organized by Stevan Harnad
- Adisa, F., P. Schubert, F. Sudzina, and B. Johansson. 2010. “Living Requirements Space an Open Access Tool for Enterprise Resource Plaiming Systems Requirements Gathering.” Online Information Review 34(4):540–64. doi: 10.1108/14684521011072972.
- Allen, R., W. Bayliff, J. Joseph, and D. Squires. 2010. The Benefits and Costs of Transformation of Open Access on the High Seas.
- Andersen, J. T., and P. Sander. 1996. “Minimal Care - A New Concept for the Management of Urinary Incontinence in an Open Access, Interdisciplinary Incontinence Clinic. The Way Ahead?” Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, Supplement 30(179):55–60.
- Andersen, L. M., and J. N. Kjaer. 2019. “Book Review: Evaluating Evidence of Mechanisms in Medicine: Principles and Procedures. By Veli-Pekka Parkkinen, Christian Wallmann, Michael Wilde, Brendan Clarke, Phyllis Illari, Michael P Kelly, Charles Norell, Federica Russo, Beth Shaw, Jon Williamson. Springer International Publishing, 2018 Soft Cover $29.99 and Ebook: Open Access, Pages 125.” Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 25(6):1226–27. doi: 10.1111/jep.13093.
- Andersen, P., and V. B. Larsen. 2017. The Fisheries Policy in the Nordic Countries: From Open Access to Rights-Based Management Fisheries.
- Bruun, M. H. 2015. Communities and the Commons: Open Access and Community Ownership of the Urban Commons.
- Bryne, J. C., E. Valen, M. H. E. Tang, T. Marstrand, O. Winther, I. Da piedade, A. Krogh, B. Lenhard, and A. Sandelin. 2008. “JASPAR, the Open Access Database of Transcription Factor-Binding Profiles: New Content and Tools in the 2008 Update.” Nucleic Acids Research 36(SUPPL. 1):D102–6. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkm955.
- Clark, N. E. 2016. “Licensing the Extraordinary: Towards a Standard Licensing Scheme for the Open Access and Use of Satellite Earth Observation Data for Disaster Recovery.” in Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC.
- Dam, R. F., and M. Soegaard. 2013. “Publishing Open Access HCI Books.” Interactions 20(4):68–71. doi: 10.1145/2486227.2486241.
- De Koning, D. J., F. Jaffrézic, M. S. Lund, M. Watson, C. Channing, I. Hulsegge, M. H. Pool, B. Buitenhuis, J. Hedegaard, H. Hornshøj, L. Jiang, P. Sørensen, G. Marot, C. Delmas, K. A. Lê Cao, M. San Cristobal, M. D. Baron, R. Malinverni, A. Stella, R. M. Brunner, H. M. Seyfert, K. Jensen, D. Mouzaki, D. Waddington, Á. Jiménez-Marín, M. Pérez-Alegre, E. Pérez-Reinado, R. Closset, J. C. Detilleux, P. Dovč, M. Lavrič, H. Nie, and L. Janss. 2007. “The EADGENE Microarray Data Analysis Workshop (Open Access Publication).” Genetics Selection Evolution 39(6):621–31. doi: 10.1051/gse:2007028.
- DOAJ (2011) The Online Guide to Open Access Journals Publishing
- Dorch, B and Christensen-Dalsgaard, B (2008) Open access in Denmark ScieCominfo Vol 4, No 1 2008.
- Duke and Jordan Ltd (2009) Evaluation of Nordbib: Final report to the Board June 2009. Undertaken on behalf of the partner organsiations.
- Elbæk, M.K. (2009) From Repository Manager Workshop to a Danish OA network: a report from the Danish OA day 31. March 2009
- Enghoff, H., L. M. Jensen, and E. V. Mikhaljova. 2018. “‘Open Access’ Growth Histories in Millipedes (Diplopoda).” Arthropod Structure and Development 47(1):104–16. doi: 10.1016/j.asd.2017.11.009.
- Ferguson, G. A., J. Greeley, P. Zapol, L. A. Curtiss, S. E. Nestorov, I. T. Foster, D. Landis, J. S. Hummelshj, K. W. Jacobsen, T. Bligaard, and J. Nrskov. 2011. “Materials Design Workbench: An Open-Access Database for Materials and Molecular Design.” Pp. 3–4 in Computational Molecular Science and Engineering Forum - Core Programming Topic at the 2011 AIChE Annual Meeting.
- Fornes, O., J. A. Castro-Mondragon, A. Khan, R. Van Der Lee, X. Zhang, P. A. Richmond, B. P. Modi, S. Correard, M. Gheorghe, D. Baranašić, W. Santana-Garcia, G. Tan, J. Chèneby, B. Ballester, F. Parcy, A. Sandelin, B. Lenhard, W. W. Wasserman, and A. Mathelier. 2020. “JASPAR 2020: Update of the Open-Access Database of Transcription Factor Binding Profiles.” Nucleic Acids Research 48(D1):D87–92. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkz1001.
- Frandsen, T. F. 2009a. “Attracted to Open Access Journals: A Bibliometric Author Analysis in the Field of Biology.” Journal of Documentation 65(1):58–82. doi: 10.1108/00220410910926121.
- Frandsen, T. F. 2009b. “The Effects of Open Access on Un-Published Documents: A Case Study of Economics Working Papers.” Journal of Informetrics 3(2):124–33. doi: 10.1016/j.joi.2008.12.002.
- Frandsen, T. F. 2009c. “The Integration of Open Access Journals in the Scholarly Communication System: Three Science Fields.” Information Processing and Management 45(1):131–41. doi: 10.1016/j.ipm.2008.06.001.
- Hansen, J. M., P. Bytzer, S. Bondesen, and O. B. Schaffalitzky de Muckadell. 1991. “Efficacy and Outcome of an Open Access Endoscopy Service.” Danish Medical Bulletin 38(3):288–90.
- Hoeyer, K., M. N. Svendsen, and L. Koch. 2008. “OECD Guidelines on Open Access: Commercialization in Disguise?” Trends in Biotechnology 26(9):479–82. doi: 10.1016/j.tibtech.2008.05.006.
- Houghton, J. (2009): Open Access - What are the economic benefits? A comparison of United Kingdom, Netherlands and Denmark. Knowledge Exchange.
- Houghton, J.(2009): Cost and benefits of alternative publishing models: Denmark. DEFF.
- Houghton, J., Swan, A. and Brown, S. (2011): Access to research and technical information in Denmark.
- Hürlimann, E., N. Schur, K. Boutsika, A. S. Stensgaard, M. L. de Himpsl, K. Ziegelbauer, N. Laizer, L. Camenzind, A. Pasquale, U. F. Ekpo, C. Simoonga, G. Mushinge, C. F. L. Saarnak, J. Utzinger, T. K. Kristensen, and P. Vounatsou. 2011. “Toward an Open-Access Global Database for Mapping, Control, and Surveillance of Neglected Tropical Diseases.” PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 5(12). doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001404.
- Ingwersen, P., and A. Elleby. 2011. “Do Open Access Working Papers Attract More Citations Compared to Printed Journal Articles from the Same Research Unit?” Pp. 327–32 in Proceedings of ISSI 2011 - 13th Conference of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics. Vol. 1.
- Jaffrézic, F., D. J. De Koning, P. J. Boettcher, A. Bonnet, B. Buitenhuis, R. Closset, S. Déjean, C. Delmas, J. C. Detilleux, P. Dovč, M. Duval, J. L. Foulley, J. Hedegaard, H. Hornshøj, I. Hulsegge, L. Janss, K. Jensen, L. Jiang, M. Lavrič, K. A. Lê Cao, M. S. Lund, R. Malinverni, G. Marot, H. Nie, W. Petzl, M. H. Pool, C. Robert-Granié, M. San Cristobal, E. M. Van Schothorst, H. J. Schuberth, P. Sørensen, A. Stella, G. Tosser-Klopp, D. Waddington, M. Watson, W. Yang, H. Zerbe, and H. M. Seyfert. 2007. “Analysis of the Real EADGENE Data Set: Comparison of Methods and Guidelines for Data Normalisation and Selection of Differentially Expressed Genes (Open Access Publication).” Genetics Selection Evolution 39(6):633–50. doi: 10.1051/gse:2007029.
- Kattge, J., G. Bönisch, S. Díaz, S. Lavorel, I. C. Prentice, P. Leadley, S. Tautenhahn, G. D. A. Werner, T. Aakala, M. Abedi, A. T. R. Acosta, G. C. Adamidis, K. Adamson, M. Aiba, C. H. Albert, J. M. Alcántara, C. Alcázar C, I. Aleixo, H. Ali, B. Amiaud, C. Ammer, M. M. Amoroso, M. Anand, C. Anderson, N. Anten, J. Antos, D. M. G. Apgaua, T. L. Ashman, D. H. Asmara, G. P. Asner, M. Aspinwall, O. Atkin, I. Aubin, L. Baastrup-Spohr, K. Bahalkeh, M. Bahn, T. Baker, W. J. Baker, J. P. Bakker, D. Baldocchi, J. Baltzer, A. Banerjee, A. Baranger, J. Barlow, D. R. Barneche, Z. Baruch, D. Bastianelli, J. Battles, W. Bauerle, M. Bauters, E. Bazzato, M. Beckmann, H. Beeckman, C. Beierkuhnlein, R. Bekker, G. Belfry, M. Belluau, M. Beloiu, R. Benavides, L. Benomar, M. L. Berdugo-Lattke, E. Berenguer, R. Bergamin, J. Bergmann, M. Bergmann Carlucci, L. Berner, M. Bernhardt-Römermann, C. Bigler, A. D. Bjorkman, C. Blackman, C. Blanco, B. Blonder, D. Blumenthal, K. T. Bocanegra-González, P. Boeckx, S. Bohlman, K. Böhning-Gaese, L. Boisvert-Marsh, W. Bond, B. Bond-Lamberty, A. Boom, C. C. F. Boonman, K. Bordin, E. H. Boughton, V. Boukili, D. M. J. S. Bowman, S. Bravo, M. R. Brendel, M. R. Broadley, K. A. Brown, H. Bruelheide, F. Brumnich, H. H. Bruun, D. Bruy, S. W. Buchanan, S. F. Bucher, N. Buchmann, R. Buitenwerf, D. E. Bunker, J. Bürger, S. Burrascano, D. F. R. P. Burslem, B. J. Butterfield, C. Byun, M. Marques, M. C. Scalon, M. Caccianiga, M. Cadotte, M. Cailleret, J. Camac, J. J. Camarero, C. Campany, G. Campetella, J. A. Campos, L. Cano-Arboleda, R. Canullo, M. Carbognani, F. Carvalho, F. Casanoves, B. Castagneyrol, J. A. Catford, J. Cavender-Bares, B. E. L. Cerabolini, M. Cervellini, E. Chacón-Madrigal, K. Chapin, F. S. Chapin, S. Chelli, S. C. Chen, A. Chen, P. Cherubini, F. Chianucci, B. Choat, K. S. Chung, M. Chytrý, D. Ciccarelli, L. Coll, C. G. Collins, L. Conti, D. Coomes, J. H. C. Cornelissen, W. K. Cornwell, P. Corona, M. Coyea, J. Craine, D. Craven, J. P. G. M. Cromsigt, A. Csecserits, K. Cufar, M. Cuntz, A. C. da Silva, K. M. Dahlin, M. Dainese, I. Dalke, M. Dalle Fratte, A. T. Dang-Le, J. Danihelka, M. Dannoura, S. Dawson, A. J. de Beer, A. De Frutos, J. R. De Long, B. Dechant, S. Delagrange, N. Delpierre, G. Derroire, A. S. Dias, M. H. Diaz-Toribio, P. G. Dimitrakopoulos, M. Dobrowolski, D. Doktor, P. Dřevojan, N. Dong, J. Dransfield, S. Dressler, L. Duarte, E. Ducouret, S. Dullinger, W. Durka, R. Duursma, O. Dymova, A. E-Vojtkó, R. L. Eckstein, H. Ejtehadi, J. Elser, T. Emilio, K. Engemann, M. B. Erfanian, A. Erfmeier, A. Esquivel-Muelbert, G. Esser, M. Estiarte, T. F. Domingues, W. F. Fagan, J. Fagúndez, D. S. Falster, Y. Fan, J. Fang, E. Farris, F. Fazlioglu, Y. Feng, F. Fernandez-Mendez, C. Ferrara, J. Ferreira, A. Fidelis, B. Finegan, J. Firn, T. J. Flowers, D. F. B. Flynn, V. Fontana, E. Forey, C. Forgiarini, L. François, M. Frangipani, D. Frank, C. Frenette-Dussault, G. T. Freschet, E. L. Fry, N. M. Fyllas, G. G. Mazzochini, S. Gachet, R. Gallagher, G. Ganade, F. Ganga, P. García-Palacios, V. Gargaglione, E. Garnier, J. L. Garrido, A. L. de Gasper, G. Gea-Izquierdo, D. Gibson, A. N. Gillison, A. Giroldo, M. C. Glasenhardt, S. Gleason, M. Gliesch, E. Goldberg, B. Göldel, E. Gonzalez-Akre, J. L. Gonzalez-Andujar, A. González-Melo, A. González-Robles, B. J. Graae, E. Granda, S. Graves, W. A. Green, T. Gregor, N. Gross, G. R. Guerin, A. Günther, A. G. Gutiérrez, L. Haddock, A. Haines, J. Hall, A. Hambuckers, W. Han, S. P. Harrison, W. Hattingh, J. E. Hawes, T. He, P. He, J. M. Heberling, A. Helm, S. Hempel, J. Hentschel, B. Hérault, A. M. Hereş, K. Herz, M. Heuertz, T. Hickler, P. Hietz, P. Higuchi, A. L. Hipp, A. Hirons, M. Hock, J. A. Hogan, K. Holl, O. Honnay, D. Hornstein, E. Hou, N. Hough-Snee, K. A. Hovstad, T. Ichie, B. Igić, E. Illa, M. Isaac, M. Ishihara, L. Ivanov, L. Ivanova, C. M. Iversen, J. Izquierdo, R. B. Jackson, B. Jackson, H. Jactel, A. M. Jagodzinski, U. Jandt, S. Jansen, T. 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