Australia has been a digital information facilitator for decades now. It pioneered in professional domain based gateways to information on the Internet. Australia, in a way, was one of the first countries to move towards organized information services using information and resources on the Internet.

There is a high level of awareness of Open Access in communities of information professionals. Approximately 43 universities in Australia have institutional repositories. The software used more are EPrints, DSpace, ARROW (a VTLS commercial front end to Fedora), and ProQuest Digital Commons (bepress). As of March 2021, Directory of Open Access Repositories (OpenDOAR) reports a total of 90 OA repositories, 34 OA policies registered in the  Registry of Open Access Repositories Mandatory Archiving Policies (ROARMAP) from various research organizations in Australia. During 2013-2014, four Australian universities adopted new repository mandates. Among these are Deakin University (18 Sep 2013), University of Newcastle (5 Dec 2013), University of Queensland (7 Feb 2014) and University of Wollongong (20 Mar 2014).

Open Access has also found policy level support.  For example the NHMRC (National Health and Medical Research Council) policy encourages open access for the research it funds. The council stated in its 2008 Funding Policy that in order to maximise the benefits from research they fund that researchers are encouraged to deposit their data in an electronic repository wherever possible. Since 2012, several new OA mandates have been put forward:

  • 24 Feb 2014: Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA) adopted an OA policy.

  • 1 Jan 2013: The Australian research Council (ARC) requires any publication arising from ARC funded projects to be deposited into an OA institutional repository.

However, the establishment of institutional repositories and the implementation of Open Access have been delayed by a range of factors, including the availability of staff expertise, access to appropriate technical infrastructure, acceptance by the academic community and uncertainty about the long-term sustainability of repositories.

As of March 2021, there are 116 OA journals published in Australia which are indexed in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ).

Enabling Environment

A high level of awareness of OA in academic and scientific communities acts as an enabler making information Open. A good example is the Group of Eight (Australia) - the Group of Eight vice-chancellors, representing Australia's pre-eminent research universities that records commitment to open access initiatives that will enhance global access to scholarly information for the public good. Information Infrastructure is quite good and with no major connectivity issues and hence Australian universities and institutes offer and share information and publications through Institutional repositories.

Potential Barriers

The establishment of institutional repositories and the implementation of Open Access have been delayed by a range of factors. Some of the studies show that the main factors include lack of appropriate technical networked infrastructure, uncertainty about the long-term sustainability of repositories and the lack of coordination from the Australian government. The lack of knowledge in copyright ownership and low acceptance in the academic community highlights the need for more OA awareness-raising campaigns.

Funding Mandate

The SHERPA/JULIET database currently lists 2 funders' OA policies:

(I) The Australian Research Council (ARC) under a section regarding Dissemination of research outputs states under funding rules that a reason must be provided if researchers do not deposit into a subject or institutional repository.

(II) The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) stated in its funding policy that in order to maximize the benefits from research they fund, that researchers are encouraged to deposit their data in an electronic repository wherever possible. 

National Library of Australia: has implemented 'Open Publish' to advance the Library's understanding of hosting an open access journal publishing service using Open Journal Systems.

Universities have also come forward to recognize and encourage OA publishing. The Macquarie University: has voted that research articles be deposited in the online Macquarie University repository, Research Online, after acceptance for publication.

Kim Carr, the Minister for Innovation, Industry, Science and Research, said he intended to implement reforms aimed at "unlocking public information and content, including the results of publicly funded research", following a review of the country's innovation.

Events and Programs

Past and Future OA related Activities

        October 29, 2019 from 1pm to 2pm – Australia

        Organized by Robin Wright | Type: panel, discussion, session

        October 27, 2019 from 12:30pm to 1:30pm – Australia

        Organized by Robin Wright | Type: film, screening

        October 22, 2019 to October 24, 2019Australia

        Organized by Jane Lally | Type: badge-making

        October 22, 2019 from 1pm to 1:30pm – Australia

        Organized by Jehan Tabet | Type: webinar

        October 24, 2019 from 10am to 2pm – Australia

        Organized by Catherine Wattiaux | Type: movie

        October 22, 2018 to October 28, 2018Australia

        Organized by Fiona Bradley | Type: competition, event

        October 23, 2018 to October 26, 2018Australia

        Organized by La Trobe University | Type: academicresearchopenaccessscholarshipuniversityresearchers, libraries

         October 24, 2018 from 4pm to 5pm – Australia

         Organized by Kim Humphris | Type: zoom, webinar

         October 25, 2018 from 8:30am to 4:30pm – Australia

         Organized by APO | Type: forum

         November 1, 2017 from 12pm to 1pm – Australia

         Organized by CAUL (Council of Australian University Librarians) | Type: lunchtime, presentation

         October 30, 2017 from 2pm to 3pm – Australia

         Organized by Judith Clark | Type: presentation

         October 26, 2017 from 1pm to 2pm – Australia

         Organized by Vanessa Tuckfield | Type: online, presentation

         October 26, 2016 all day – Australia

         Organized by Robin Burgess | Type: raising, awareness, towards, open, access

         October 26, 2016 from 11am to 12pm – Australia

         Organized by Alison Makins | Type: workshop

         October 26, 2016 from 1pm to 5pm – Australia

         Organized by Alison Makins | Type: drop-in, clinic

         October 25, 2016 from 9am to 1pm – Australia

         Organized by Alison Makins | Type: drop-in, clinic

         October 25, 2016 from 2pm to 4pm – Australia

         Organized by Queensland University of Technology Library Research Support | Type: open, access, week

        October 25, 2017 from 12pm to 1pm – Australia

        Organized by VALA, Libraries Technology and the Future | Type: webinar

        October 24, 2017 at 11pm to October 26, 2017 at 2pm – Australia

        Organized by Judith Clark | Type: poster, sessions

        October 23, 2017 at 10am to October 27, 2017 at 7pm – Australia

        Organized by Katie Freund | Type: short, online, course

        October 23, 2017 at 10am to October 27, 2017 at 4pm – Australia

        Organized by Robin Burgess | Type: presentations, and, socials

        October 23, 2017 from 12pm to 1pm – Australia

        Organized by Vanessa Tuckfield | Type: online, presentation

        October 23, 2017 from 1pm to 4pm – Australia

        Organized by La Trobe University-Library+Research Education and Development (RED) Unit | Type: paneldiscussions, +, seminar

        October 24, 2016 from 9am to 5pm – Australia

        Organized by Alison Makins | Type: booth

        October 18, 2015 to October 25, 2015Australia

        Organized by Australasian OA Support Group and local Institutions | Type: seminars, talks

        October 26, 2016 from 2pm to 4pm – Australia

        Organized by Queensland University of Technology Library Research Support | Type: open, access, week

  • Australian Open Access Support Group (AOASG) hosted four Webinars:

    • Open Access 101, 21 Oct 2014

    • Funder Open Access Policies and Requirements, 22 Oct 2014

    • Understanding Publisher Agreement, 22 Oct 2014

    • Changing Publishing Landscape, 23 Oct 2014

    • JCDL 2010 and ICADL - Digital Libraries - 10 years past, 10 years forward, a 2020 Vision. Gold Coast, Australia, June 21-25, 2010.

  • Social Collections, New Metrics, Maps and Other Australian Oddities. A seminar by Sebastian Chan. OA is among the topics. San Francisco, August 28, 2009.

  • Open Access and Research Conference - held in Brisbane from the 24th to the 25th of September to discuss ways to optimize access to and reuse of research especially that which is publicly funded.

  • A two-day Public Knowledge Project Workshop December 4 and 5, 2008 at the University of Sydney.

  • The RQF Explained: Information Management and Repository Needs for the RQF. (sponsored by Australia's APSR, ARROW and Department of Education, Science and Training). Sydney and Melbourne, February 13 and 15, 2007

  • Improving Access to Australian Publicly Funded Research - Advancing Knowledge and the Knowledge Economy. (sponsored by Australia's National Scholarly Communications Forum). Canberra, July 16, 2007

  • Open Repositories 2006. (Sponsored by Australia's APSR, the ARROW project, MAMS, Macquarie University, and the University of Technology Sydney). Sydney, January 31 - February 3, 2006

  • Open Access and Scholarly Communication Futures. (a CAVAL training workshop conducted by Colin Steele). Victoria, Australia, August 12, 2005. The course also offered in Brisbane, Sydney, Perth,Adelaide, Auckland and in Wellington

  • Open Access, Open Archives and Open Source. (sponsored by Australia's National Scholarly Communications Forum and the Australian Academy of the Humanities). Sydney, September 27, 2005

  • Australia ETD 2005 8th International Symposium on Electronic Theses & Dissertations. [1]. Sydney, September 28-30, 2005

  • Global Access Project (GAP) Inaugural International Forum. Macquarie University, September 29-30, 2005

  • Australian Research Online: A CAUL Forum on Research Repositories. Melbourne, November 28, 2005

  • Australian Government Agencies Publications access seminar. Canberra, March 19, 2004

  • Creative Licensing to Expand Australia's Public Domain. A Symposium. Sydney, May 11, 2004

  • Changing Research Practices in the Digital Information and Communication Environment. (sponsored by Australia's National Scholarly Communications Forum). Canberra, June, 2004

  • From Creator to Consumer in A Digital Age: International Conference on The Future of the Book. Cairns, Australia, April 22-24, 2003

Open Science and Open Data Related Events

July 2016: From big data to big reach: the future of research

The seminar examined what online research and big data means for academics, how we can do it better, and the future of our research habits and practices.

May 2015: Open Data and Digital Services: Foundations for a New Information Economy

This event covered subjects related to open data and digital Government service delivery.


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  • Armato, S. G., and C. Baldock. 2015. “‘hybrid Gold’ Is the Most Appropriate Open-Access Modality for Journals like Medical Physics.” Medical Physics 42(1):1–4. doi: 10.1118/1.4895979.

  • Atherton, M. 2015. “Measuring Confidence Levels of Male and Female Students in Open Access Enabling Courses.” Issues in Educational Research 25(2):81–98.

  • Atherton, M. 2017. “A Comparison of Student Confidence Levels in Open Access and Undergraduate University Courses.” Issues in Educational Research 27(1):19–30.

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  • Bush, A. M., J. Louys, and J. P. Rumford. 2018. “Paleontologia Electronica Is Still Number One for New Open Access Fossil Species.” Palaeontologia Electronica 21(1). doi: 10.26879/175E.

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  • Camp, D. 2007. “Establishment of an Open Access Compound Management Facility in Australia to Stimulate Applied, Basic and Translational Biomedical Research.” Drug Discovery World 8(2):61-64+66.

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  • Carley, S., I. Beardsell, N. May, L. Crowe, J. Baombe, A. Grayson, R. Carden, A. Liebig, C. Gray, R. Fisher, D. Horner, L. Howard, and R. Body. 2018. “Social-Media-Enabled Learning in Emergency Medicine: A Case Study of the Growth, Engagement and Impact of a Free Open Access Medical Education Blog.” Postgraduate Medical Journal 94(1108):92–96. doi: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2017-135104.

  • Caust, J. 2019. “Open Access Arts Festivals and Artists: Who Benefits?” Journal of Arts Management Law and Society 49(5):291–306. doi: 10.1080/10632921.2019.1617811.

  • Chanson, H. 2007. “Research Quality, Publications, and Impact in Civil Engineering into the 21st Century. Publish or Perish, Commercial versus Open Access, Internet versus Libraries?” Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 34(8):946–51. doi: 10.1139/L07-027.

  • Chauvin, M., D. Borys, F. Botta, P. Bzowski, J. Dabin, A. M. Denis-Bacelar, A. Desbrée, N. Falzone, B. Q. Lee, A. Mairani, A. Malaroda, G. Mathieu, E. McKay, E. Mora-Ramirez, A. P. Robinson, D. Sarrut, L. Struelens, A. V. Gil, and M. Bardiès. 2020. “OpenDose: Open-Access Resource for Nuclear Medicine Dosimetry.” Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine 61(10):1514–19. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.119.240366.

  • Chierchia, G., D. Fuhrmann, L. J. Knoll, B. P. Pi-Sunyer, A. L. Sakhardande, and S. J. Blakemore. 2019. “The Matrix Reasoning Item Bank (MaRs-IB): Novel, Open-Access Abstract Reasoning Items for Adolescents and Adults.” Royal Society Open Science 6(10). doi: 10.1098/rsos.190232.

  • Cibin, G., D. Gianolio, S. A. Parry, T. Schoonjans, O. Moore, R. Draper, L. A. Miller, A. Thoma, C. L. Doswell, and A. Graham. 2020. “An Open Access, Integrated XAS Data Repository at Diamond Light Source.” Radiation Physics and Chemistry 175. doi: 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2019.108479.

  • Cisneros, B. J., J. E. Drewes, S. Gray, I. S. Kim, and H. Y. Ng. 2016. “Editorial: Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination Moves to Open Access.” Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination 6(4):465. doi: 10.2166/wrd.2016.002.

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  • Crozier, S., L. K. Forbes, and D. M. Doddrell. 1998. “A Novel, Open Access, Elliptical Cross-Section Magnet for Paediatric MRI.” Measurement Science and Technology 9(1):113–19. doi: 10.1088/0957-0233/9/1/015.

  • De Silva, S., A. P. Bailey, A. G. Parker, A. E. Montague, and S. E. Hetrick. 2018. “Open-Access Evidence Database of Controlled Trials and Systematic Reviews in Youth Mental Health.” Early Intervention in Psychiatry 12(3):474–77. doi: 10.1111/eip.12423.

  • Del Valle, H. F., P. D. Blanco, L. A. Hardtke, G. Metternicht, P. J. Bouza, A. Bisigato, and C. M. Rostagno. 2015. Contribution of Open Access Global SAR Mosaics to Soil Survey Programs at Regional Level: A Case Study in North-Eastern Patagonia.

  • Domingo, I., C. Smith, G. Jackson, and D. Roman. 2020. “Hidden Sites, Hidden Images, Hidden Meanings: Does the Location and Visibility of Motifsand Sites Correlate to Restricted or Open Access?” Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 27(3):699–722. doi: 10.1007/s10816-020-09465-8.

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  • Dunlap, W. C., A. Starcevic, D. Baranasic, J. Diminic, J. Zucko, R. Gacesa, M. J. H. van Oppen, D. Hranueli, J. Cullum, and P. F. Long. 2013. “KEGG Orthology-Based Annotation of the Predicted Proteome of Acropora Digitifera: ZoophyteBase - an Open Access and Searchable Database of a Coral Genome.” BMC Genomics 14(1). doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-14-509.

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  • Ellender, C. M., and C. A. Hukins. 2016. “Pitfalls of Open-Access Sleep Medicine: A Case of Missed Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome.” The Medical Journal of Australia 204(6):241–42. doi: 10.5694/mja15.00738.

  • Enot, D. P., E. Vacchelli, N. Jacquelot, L. Zitvogel, and G. Kroemer. 2018. “TumGrowth: An Open-Access Web Tool for the Statistical Analysis of Tumor Growth Curves.” OncoImmunology 7(9). doi: 10.1080/2162402X.2018.1462431.

  • Finlay, E. 2019. “Library Provision of Intellectual Access to Open Access Journal Articles.” Serials Librarian 77(1–2):6–14. doi: 10.1080/0361526X.2019.1628161.

  • Fitzgerald, B. 2013. Structuring Open Access to Knowledge: The Creative Commons Story.

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  • Flynn, D. J. H., T. P. Lynch, N. S. Barrett, L. S. C. Wong, C. Devine, and D. Hughes. 2018. “Gigapixel Big Data Movies Provide Cost-Effective Seascape Scale Direct Measurements of Open-Access Coastal Human Use Such as Recreational Fisheries.” Ecology and Evolution 8(18):9372–83. doi: 10.1002/ece3.4301.

  • Forghani, A., S. Kazemi, A. Darmawan, J. Thalari, J. Alexandra, and S. Zagonski. 2011. “Web Mapping for the Murray-Darling Basin Authority - the Challenges and Opportunities of Open Access.” in 34th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment - The GEOSS Era: Towards Operational Environmental Monitoring.

  • Frey, E. F. J. 2019. “Open Access: Remember the Limitations of Abstracts and the Role of Professional Endorsement.” The BMJ 365. doi: 10.1136/bmj.l2252.

  • Fronek, P., J. Boddy, L. Chenoweth, and J. Clark. 2016. “A Report on the Use of Open Access Podcasting in the Promotion of Social Work.” Australian Social Work 69(1):105–14. doi: 10.1080/0312407X.2014.991338.

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  • Gaffney, J., R. Tibebu, R. Bart, G. Beyene, D. Girma, N. A. Kane, E. S. Mace, T. Mockler, T. E. Nickson, N. Taylor, and G. Zastrow-Hayes. 2020. “Open Access to Genetic Sequence Data Maximizes Value to Scientists, Farmers, and Society.” Global Food Security 26. doi: 10.1016/j.gfs.2020.100411.

  • Garcia, M. P., A. Charil, P. Callaghan, C. Wimberley, F. Busso, M. C. Grégoire, M. Bardiès, and A. Reilhac. 2016. “OSSI-PET: Open-Access Database of Simulated [11C]Raclopride Scans for the Inveon Preclinical PET Scanner: Application to the Optimization of Reconstruction Methods for Dynamic Studies.” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 35(7):1696–1706. doi: 10.1109/TMI.2016.2526086.

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